| BC-AD|| || 100 BC - AD 100 sees
the flourishing of Gnosticism in the Middle East, including one of the three main
strands of early Christianity.|
| 216|| ||
Birth of Manes :. Manes, a minor member of Persian royalty, was born in Mesopotamia,
and was executed for his new religion (incorporating dualist beliefs) in AD 277.
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| early eleventh
century|| || Theodora, Empress of Byzantium, had a multitude of
Paulicians put to death.|
| 1012|| || The first
Cathars known in Europe were noted in the Limousin.|
|| King Robert II of France (996-1031) had thirteen distinguished citizens,
ecclesiastic and lay, burnt alive at Orléans "because he feared for the safety
of the kingdom and the salvation of souls". Ten were canons of the église
collégiale de Sainte-Croix (Church of the Holy Cross) and another had been
confessor to Queen Constance. They were described, in Medieval fashion, as Manichæans,
meaning they were dualists. They died steadfast in their beliefs despite torture.
This action earned the king the soubriquet Robert the Pious.|
||Several cathars were discovered and put to death at
| 1028|| || Catholic Council of Charroux is convened
at the suggestion of Guillaume V of Aquitaine. The Council is charged with devising
a way of combating religious (Cathar) "error".|
|| Roger, Bishop of Chalons, observed that the sect was spreading in his
diocese, and asked of Wazo, Bishop of Liège, advice as to the use of force.|
| 1049|| || Catholic Council of Reims convened
to formulate an understanding of Cathar beliefs.|
|| At Goslar, in the Christmas season of 1051, and in 1052, (Cathar) "heretics"
were hanged because Holy Roman Emperor Henry III wanted to prevent the spread
of "the heretical leprosy".|
|| Catholic Council of Toulouse
threatened Cathar "heretics" with excommunication if they
did not repent.
| 1077|| || In 1076 or 1077, a Cathar is condemned to
the stake by the Bishop of Cambrai. Other Cathars are given a choice, by the magistrates
of Milan, of converting to Catholicism or being burnt at the stake. Most chose
to be burned at the stake.|
| 1118|| || the
Emperor Alexius Comnenus has a number of Bogomils executed. (possibly triggering
a move of survivors into Western Europe.)|
|| Catholic Council of Toulouse:
Presided over by Pope Calixtus II, this Council charged
the secular powers with responsibility for dealing with
|| Catholic Council of Pisa. A cleric, Henri du Mans, disowns his
"errors" (though he later re-adopts them).|
|| Second (Catholic ) Lateran Council. Presided over by Pope Calixtus
II, this council again stresses that the secular powers must take rigorous action
against the heretics.|
| 1142|| || Bogomils
are burnt in Cologne.|
| 1144|| || A Catholic
mob storms a prison where the Bishop of Soissons keeps heretics imprisoned, and
burns them alive. A similar incident occurs at Liège, though a few are rescued
from the fire. Yet another similar incident happens at Cologne.|
| 1148|| || Catholic Council of Reims. This council
decrees that Lords harbouring "heretics" on their land will be treated as their
| 1157|| || Catholic Council
of Reims. This council lays out repressive procedures against the "heretics".|
| 1163|| || Catholic Council of Tours. Presided
over by Pope Alexander III, this Council establishes a less unjust and arbitrary
procedure against the Cathars.|
|| Council at Lombez. Condemnes the boni homines.|
| 1167|| || Cathar Council held in
Saint-Félix de Caraman. This council established an administrative organisation
in the Languedoc and agreed matters of doctrine. It was presided over by
Nicetus, the Cathar bishop of Constantinople, who had travelled from Bulgaria.|
| 1167|| || Execution of seven Burgundian Cathars at
the stake in Vézelay.|
| 1179|| || Third
(Catholic) Lateran Council. Presided over by Pope Alexander III, this
council attempts to restore the tattered dignity of the Catholic Clergy.
It also anathematises the Cathar "heresy".|
|| Henry, cardinal-bishop of Albano, raises an armed expedition against
the stronghold of "heretics" at Lavaur a fief of Raymond Roger, viscount of Béziers.
He takes Lavaur and forces the submission of Raymond-Roger. .|
1183-1206|| || Over an extended period, Bishop Hugo of Auxerre
attacks a number of neo-Manichæans. Some are despoiled, some exiled, and some
sent to the stake. .|
| 1195|| || Catholic
Council of Montpellier|
| 1197-8|| || In
1197, Peter II the Catholic (1196-1213), King of Aragon and Count of Barcelona,
issues an edict in obedience to which the Waldensians and all other schismatics
are to be expelled from the land. Any found in the kingdom after Palm Sunday of
the next year was to suffer death by fire, and confiscation of goods. In 1198
the Catholic Council of Gerona. publishes the decrees of Peter II.|
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|| Pontificate of Innocent III, starts. (Ends 1216)|
| 1200|| || King Philip Augustus of France has eight Cathars
burned at Troyes. |
| 1201|| || King Philip
Augustus of France has a Cathar burned at Nevers|
|| Two monks from the Abbey of Fontfroide, legates of
Innocent III, Pierre de Castelnau and Raoul de Fontfroide
attempt to coerce the Count of Toulouse, Raymond
VI into initiating a crusade against the Cathars in
| 1204|| || King Philip Augustus of France has several
Cathars burned at Braisne-sur-Vesle, and many Cathars burned at Paris, including
priests, clerics, laymen, and women. |
| 1204|| February
|| Peter II of Aragón convenes a debate in Carcassonne
between Catholics and Cathars (followed by a second one
between Catholics and Waldensians).
|| Cathar Council of Mirepoix. The proceedings
are largely unknown, but it is possible that Raymond de
Pereille was asked to rebuild the Château of Montségur
to provide a Cathar stronghold.
|| Preachings of Dominic Gúzman (later St Dominic)
to the Cathars in the Languedoc. In spite of his reputed
eloquence, Saint Dominic fails to convince the "heretics"
to renounce their beliefs. Recognising the Roman Church's
Innocent III declares all southern fiefs forfeit.
He also called on the lords of France to take part in
the crusade against the Languedoc.
of Foix, the Count's sister, is administered the Consolamentum,
so becoming a Parfaite.
| 1206|| 22 November|| Foundation of Prouille,
a Dominican convent set up by Dominic Gúzman to rival existing Cathar establishments.|
| 1207|| || Colloquy of Montréal
Final debate in Pamiers between the Catholics (Dominic Gúzman) and the Cathars
(notably Benoît de Termes), then between the Catholics and the Waldensians.|
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|| Murder of Pierre de Castelneau as he is about to cross
the River Rhone in Saint-Gilles following an unsatisfactory
meeting with Raymond V. The killer is identified as an
officer of Raymond
VI of Toulouse.
|| Council of Avignon. Although there is no evidence
against him, Raymond
VI of Toulouse is excommunicated again.
18th of January
|| Submission of Raymond
VI of Toulouse. Stripped to the waist, Raymond
is flogged in public on the spot at Saint-Gilles where Pierre
de Castelnau had been killed. He was then authorised to
lead a crusade against his own subjects, required to discriminate
against his Jewish subjects, and absolved from his supposed
| 1209|| June
|| Initiation of the Crusade. The crusade
is preached throughout Europe, and an army raised mainly
from the areas now comprising northern France.
The crusading army is mustered under the command of Arnaud
Amoury the Cistercian
Abbot of Cîteaux. Tens of thousands of Crusaders are enlisted.
They are mainly Northern French, keen for plunder, the
remission of their sins, and an assured place in Heaven.
They are crusaders in every sense, wearing the crusaders
cross and enjoying all of their privileges (protection
of goods, suspension of debts, and so on).
22nd of July
|| The Massacre at Béziers.
On 22 July 1209 the Crusader army arrived at Béziers
on the periphery of the area in the Languedoc where Cathars
flourished. There were believed to be around 200 Cathars
in the town among a much greater population of sympathetic
Catholics. The crusading army sacked and looted the town
indiscriminately, while townspeople retreated to the sanctuary
of the churches. Arnaud
Amoury, the Cistercian
abbot-commander is said to have been asked how to tell
Cathar from Catholic. His reply, recorded later by a fellow
demonstrated his faith: "Kill them all - the Lord will
recognise His own". The doors of the church of St Mary
Magdalene were broken down and the occupants slaughtered.
7,000 people died in the church including women, children,
clerics and old men. Elsewhere many more thousands were
mutilated and killed. Prisoners were blinded, dragged
behind horses, and used for target practice The town was
the abbot-commander, wrote to his master the Pope: "Today
your Holiness, twenty thousand citizens were put to the
sword, regardless of rank, age, or sex". Reportedly, not
a single person survived.
1st to the 15th of August
|| Siege of Carcassonne.
From 1st to 15th of August Carcassonne is besieged.
Its Viscount, Raymond-Roger
Trencavel, is seized during a truce and without their
commander the inhabitants surrender. The Crusaders expel
the inhabitants with a day's safe conduct, so that they
can loot at leisure. Arnaud writes to the pope to explain
why on this occasion no-one had been killed. It is at
this stage that Simon
de Montfort is appointed to hold Raymond-Roger's territories.
| 1209|| 10th of November
|| Death of Raymond-Roger Trencavel in mysterious circumstances,
in his own prison.
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|| Siege of Bram.
When the castle at Bram falls in 1210, 100 prisoners have
their noses cropped, their lips cut off and their eyes
gauged out. One man is left with one eye so that he can
guide the others away. With a hand on the shoulder of
the one in front, and the one-eyed man at their head,
a file of blind prisoners winds its way to Lastours (Cabaret), a
visible demonstration of the ineffable mercy of God's
de Montfort fails repeatedly to capture the Castles
of Lastours (Cabaret)
| 1210|| Early June|| The
"Montréal Meeting" is convened between Peter II of Aragón and Languedoc lords.
The lords were prepared to swear allegiance to the king in return for his support.
The negotiation fell through.|
|| Capture of Minerve.
Following a six-week siege, 150 Cathar men and women
are burned alive when they refuse to abjure their faith.
Vaux de Cernay notes that it was not necessary to throw
them to the flames, for they went voluntarily. They claimed
that "neither death nor life can separate us from the
faith to which we are joined". Their behaviour seems to
have impressed some of their persecutors, but not enough
to raise qualms about killing them.
| 1210|| 22nd of August-
|| Siege of Termes,
which fell after a four-month siege.
|| Council of Montpellier, at which Raymond
VI of Toulouse is excommunicated for the third time.
| 1211|| Early March|| Surrender of Cabaret, under
diplomatic rather than military pressure.|
3rd of May
|| Capture of Lavaur. Lavaur falls after a siege,
after which the French crusaders excel even themselves
in cruelty and disregard for the accepted rules of war.
Aimeric-de-Montréal and 90 knights are hanged. The chatelaine,
Geralda de Lavaur, is thrown alive into a well which is
then filled with stones until her screams can no longer
be heard. As in all other cases, Cathar Parfaites
decline to abjure their faith. 400 cathars are burned
by the crusaders, "with great joy" as de Cernay noted.
(The crusaders generally burned people alive with great
joy - cum ingenti gaudio). One Parfaits
allegedly renounced his faith. The rest sing as they are
being led to the pyres.
| 1211|| 16th to 29th of June
|| Siege of Toulouse. Simon
de Montfort besieges Toulouse, without success.
| 1211|| September
|| Siege of Castelnaudary.
The tables turned, Simon
de Montfort is besieged in Castelnaudary by the Count
of Toulouse and his ally the Raymond
Roger Count of Foix.
| 1212|| 16th July||
The battle of Las Navas de Tolosa. Turning point of the Crusade against the
Moors in Spain.|
| 1212|| 8th of September
|| Surrender of Moissac. Simon
de Montfort captures cities of the Albi and the Quercy
regions which had rebelled against the occupation by the
|| Councils of Orange and Lavaur.
27th of January
VI of Toulouse renders feudal homage to Peter II King
| 1213|| July
VI of Toulouse recapturs Pujol.
|| Battle of Muret. Simon
de Montfort is besieged in the Castle of Muret by
VI of Toulouse and Peter II of Aragón. Due to Peter's
foolhardy bravado he is killed in hand-to-hand fighting,
and a battle already won by the allies is converted into
a route by de Montfort's forces. Raymond
VI of Toulouse goes into exile, seeking refuge with
his Plantagenate relative King
John of England.
|| Surrender of Toulouse to Simon
| 1215|| 1st of June
|| Prince Louis and Simon
de Montfort enter Toulouse
| 1215|| November
|| Fourth Lateran Council. This Council was the
main even of Innocent
III's pontificate. Pope
Innocent expanded Gregory VII's claims to temporal
as well as spiritual matters, trying to impose a theocracy
on the Christian world. A practical application of these
temporal claims was the purported dispossession of Raymond
VI of Toulouse whose estate was allotted to Simon
de Montfort, who thus adopted the title Count of Toulouse.
| 1216|| May-24th of August
|| Siege of Beaucaire. Raymondet, the son of Raymond
VI of Toulouse, the future Raymond
VII of Toulouse, lands in Marseille and besieges Beaucaire.
When de Montfort leaves Toulouse to intervene, the inhabitants
of Toulouse seize the opportunity to revolt (see next).
| 1216|| Early September to
October|| Popular Uprising in Toulouse|
| 1217|| February-March|| Siege of Montgrenier.|
| 1217|| 22nd of May
|| Surrender of Peyrepertuse.
| 1217|| 12th
VI of Toulouse re-enters Toulouse.
13th September 1217 to 22 July 1218
|| Second Siege of Toulouse. Stung by the humiliation
of losing Toulouse, Simon
de Montfort besieges the city again.
25th of June
|| During the siege of Toulouse a stone hurled from a
mangonel strikes Simon
de Montfort on the head and kills him, an event that
is still celebrated in the Languedoc. After his death
his son Amaury takes over the leadership of the crusade.
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| 1218|| October 1218 to June 1219
|| Siege and capture of Marmande
| 1219|| 16th of
June - 1st of August
|| Third Siege of Toulouse
| 1220|| July to March 1221
|| Second siege of Castelnaudary
VI of Toulouse captures Montréal.
VI of Toulouse builds a fortified village for refugees
at Cordes (Now called Cordes sur ciel)
| 1222|| August
|| Death of Raymond
VI of Toulouse
1223|| || Council of Sens, at which attempts are made to
end the crusade. Churchmen insist that it continue.|
|| Death of Raymond Roger of Foix. He is succeeded by
Roger Bernard II (the Great) Count of Foix (1223-1241)
July|| Death of Philip II (Philip Augustus), King of France|
|| Start of the reign of Louis VIII (1223-1226).
Defeated, Amaury de Montfort turns to the King of France
for help and bestows his rights on the French King. Louis
VIII, appointed commander of the crusade by the pope,
carries out more atrocities in the Languedoc. His death
reverses the Crusaders' fortunes and Raymond
VII of Toulouse recovers part of his estate.
| 1224|| February
|| Raymond Trencavel II recovers the estates of
his father Raymond-Roger Trencavel who died at the hands
of the Crusaders at Carcassonne in 1209. Amaury de Montfort
returns to France
VII of Toulouse is declared an enemy of the Church.
| 1225|| || The Council of Bourges initiates a second
|| Cathar Council of Pieusse
creates a Cathar bishopric in the Razés.
| 1226|| 30th of January|| Led by the King of France,
Louis VIII, French crusaders arrive in the Languedoc. With the exception of Toulouse,
local resistance collapses.|
July|| Carcassonne surrenders to the French Crusaders.|
| 1226|| 9th of September|| The Crusaders take Avignon|
| 1226|| 3rd of November|| Death of Louis VIII
while returning to France.|
| 1226|| || Accession
of Louis IX (later Saint Louis), and since he is still a child, start of the regency
of Blanche de Castille|
| 1227|| || Start of
the Pontificate of Gregory IX (1227-1241)|
|| Council of Narbonne endorses the excommunication
and anathema against Raymond
VII of Toulouse.
VII of Toulouse submits to Blanche de Castile Regent
for Louis IX of France. Raymond Trencavel II and other seigneurs are
stripped of their possessions and become faidits. Raymond
Tranceval seeks refuge in Aragón.
| 1229|| January
|| Treaty of Meaux under which Raymond
VII of Toulouse pledges to exterminate "heresy", to
marry his daughter to the son of Louis VIII Alphonse de
Poitiers (brother of Louis IX). The treaty also specifies
that the County of Toulouse would be consolidated within
the Kingdom of France if the marriage produces no heirs.
The establishment of the Inquisition is often dated from
this meeting, though it had already been planned before
| 1229|| ||
Council of Toulouse. Devises procedures to apply the Treaty of Meaux.|
| 1229|| Spring|| Roger-Bernard de Foix makes
his peace with the Louis IX.|
|| Guilhabert de Castres, the most prominent Cathar bishop
administers the Consolamentum
in hundreds of Languedoc townships. He then establishes
himself in the Cathar stronghold at Montségur
- where he holds a Cathar Council.
| 1233|| 13th
April|| Gregory IX formally established the Inquistion, and appoints
the Dominicans to administer it.|
| 1234|| ||
210 people are condemned to the stake by Inquisotors at Moissac.|
|| Following a request from Raymond
VII of Toulouse, the widely despised Inquisition agrees
to suspend its activities in the county of Toulouse for
a four-year period.
| 1239|| September|| 183 Cathars are burned at Montwimer
(Marne) in the presence of the Count of Champaigne.|
| 1240|| 7th of September - 11th of October
|| Raymond Trencavel II returns from exile in
Aragón with an army and besieges Carcassonne
| 1240|| 16th of November
|| Surrender of Peyrepertuse
to the French.
|| First Siege of Montségur.
To appease Louis IX, Raymond
VII of Toulouse, besieges Montségur
but without success.
1241|| May|| Death of Roger Bernard II (the Great) Count
of Foix 1223-1241|
| 1242|| 28 May
|| Massacre of lnquisitors at Avignonet.
As part of an abortive uprising, two widely hated inquisitors
were killed, along with their retinue, by soldiers from
(led by Pierre-Roger de Mirepoix).
| 1242|| 20 May
|| Royan. Henry
III, King of England lands on the Atlantic coast of
|| Taillebourg. Victory of Louis IX King of France
III, King of England at Taillebourg.
|| The Peace of Lorris by which Raymond
VII of Toulouse definitively surrendered to Louis
| 1243|| Spring
|| Council of Béziers:
VII of Toulouse appeals for his excommunication to
be lifted. The Council decides to "cut off the head of
the dragon" referring to Montségur
|| Siege of the Château
of Montségur. Montségur
is besieged by the French Crusaders begins. Inside, a
military garrison of around 200 knights and soldiers protected
a further 200 Parfaits
and their families.
| 1244|| March
|| Fall of the Château
of Montségur after a siege lasting 10 months.
Between the start of negotiations of the surrender and
the final rendition, some 25 ordinary believers opt to
receive the Consolamentum,
knowing the implications.
| 1244|| 16th of March
|| Around 225 Parfaits,
including the 25 recent additions, were burnt alive on
a huge pyre at the foot of the pog of Montségur
(in a field now called the 'Prat dels Cremats (field of
| 1247|| 7th of April
|| Raymond Trencavel II submits in Béziers
| 1248|| || Crusade to the Holy Land. Louis IX
(later Saint Louis) goes off on crusade , and is later captured in Egypt.|
|| Death of Raymond
VII of Toulouse, without a male heir. His estates
pass to his daughter, Jeanne, married to Alphonse de Poitiers,
brother of Louis IX.
|| Return of Saint Louis|
|| Surrender of Quéribus After the fall of the
Château of Montségur
Cathar resistance had centred on another remote mountain
stronghold, this time in the Fenouillèdes, in the Roussillon,
legally belonging to the King of Aragón and so outside
the jurisdiction of the French crown. Another siege was
planned. This time the Cathars leave before the arrival
of the French troops, fleeing presumably to seek sanctuary
elsewhere in Catalonia, Aragón or Piedemont.
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| 1258|| 11th of May|| Treaty of Corbeil. This
treaty, concluded between Saint Louis and Jaume I of Aragón, ratified the French
seizure of Queribus and the surrounding area in the Fenouillèdes. Aragón ceded
all lands north of the River Agly. Subsequently Louis IX and Philip the Bold re-inforced
or rebuilt Puilaurens, Aguila, Queribus, Peyrepertuse and Termes to form a line
of defence for the new border. These five castles are together known as the five
sons of Carcassonne. Many Cathars withdraw to even more remote places of safety
such as caves or forests. Others are sheltered by friends or flee to Piedmont.
Some die of exposure or starvation, or fall into the hands of the Inquisitors.|
| 1268|| || "28 cart loads" of
Cathars are bured alive at Plaisance in Lombardy.|
1271|| October|| Annexation of the county of Toulouse.
Following the death of Alphonse de Poitiers and Jeanne de Toulouse the county
of Toulouse is incorporated into the French Royal Demesne.|
1278|| || Cathar persecutions continue elsewhere. 200 Patarins
are burnt at the stake in Sermione. 200 Cathars are burnt in Verona.|
|| Death of Guillem Bélibaste, Guilhem Belibaste was the last known
in the Languedoc, burned alive at the château at Villerouge Termenès.
|| 510 Cathars are allegedly walled up alive in the Lombrives
cave, on orders from the Inquisitor Jacques Fournier, who is later elected pope.