Cathars and Cathar Beliefs in the Languedoc
Cathar Wars or "Albigensian Crusade"


HOME

 

CATHAR BELIEFS

Basic Tenets

Implications

Cathar Believers

Cathar Elect

Afterlife, Heaven & Hell

Other Beliefs

Cathar Ceremonies

Cathar Prayer

The Cathar Hierarchy

 

CATHAR WARS

Albigensian Crusade

Who led the Crusade ?

Crusader Coats of Arms

Defender Coats of arms

Medieval Warfare

 

CATHOLIC CHURCH

Cistercians

Dominicans

Franciscans

Cathars on Catholics

Catholics on Cathars

Catholic Propaganda

"Kill Them All ... "

Waldensians

 

CATHAR INQUISITION

Inquisition

Inquisition documents

 

CATHAR CASTLES

Cathar Castles

Cathar Castle Photos

 

CATHAR ORIGINS

Early Gnostic Dualism

Manichaeans

 

CATHAR LEGACY

Geo-politics

Historical Studies

Popular Culture

Catholic Inheritance

Protestant Inheritance

Cathar Vindications

Do Cathars still exist ?

 

CATHAR TOURS

 

WHO's WHO

The Catholic Side

The "Cathar" Side

Counts of Toulouse

The Cross of Toulouse

 

CATHAR TIMELINE

Detailed Chronology

 

MORE INFORMATION

 

CATHAR TERMINOLOGY

A Cathar Glossary

Cathars grew in influence in the Languedoc throughout the twelfth century. Catholic chroniclers record that Cathars had become the majority religion in many places, and that Catholic churches were abandoned and in ruin. Of the Catholic clergy that remained some, perhaps most, were themselves Cathar believers. The Papacy responded initially be intigating preaching campaigns and engaging in public debates, both of which proved humiliating failures for the crack teams of theologians sent by the Pope.

The next response, in 1208, was a war, or more accurately a series of wars. Modern writers refer to them as the Cathar Wars, but traditionally the series was refered to as the Albigensian Crusade. It was a formal crusade in the full sense of the word - preached and directed by the papacy, and offering participants the remission of sins and an assured place in heaven. The Crusaders regarded themselves as being "on God's business" and referred to themselves as "pilgrims".

From the first major siege (at Béziers) in 1209 the War bacame one of French (+ their allies) against the independent people of the Languedoc (+ their allies). Instead of Catholics against Cathars it was, up until 1242 at least, consistently Catholics on one side against Cathars and Catholics on the other.

The war saw many sieges, including those of Béziers, Carcassonne, Bram, Lavaur, Lastours, Saissac, Minerve, Termes, Les Casses, Puivert, Toulouse, Muret, Castelnaudary, Foix, Beaucaire, Marmande, Montsegur.

These sieges were of castra, ie castles and their associated walled villages, towns or cities. Some gave up without a fight - the desired result of the Crusaders's deliberate terror tactics. These included Fanjeaux and Castelnaudary (after the fall of Béziers and Carcassonne), Lastours and Foix (both for diplomatic reasons after withstanding repeated sieges), Le Bezu and Coustaussa (after the fall of Termes), Peyrepertuse, Queribus, Puilaurens and Aguilar.

Terror tactics included mass indiscriminate slaughter as at Béziers and Marmande (and planned for Toulouse), various attrocities as at Bram and Lavaur, and mass burnings as at Minerve, Lavaur, Les casses and Montsegur.

 

The Albigensian Crusade

Who led the Crusade ?

Techniques of Medieval Warfare

Coats of Arms of the knights on both sides

 

The Castle of Puilaurens - A Cathar refuge in the far south

 

 

 

The Albigensian Crusade

 

The Albigensian Crusade was a Crusade against the people of the Languedoc which began in 1208.  It is also known as the Cathar Crusade.  Like all crusades it was a war, declared by the Pope, (Innocent III) backed by the Roman Church with promises of remission of sins and a guaranteed place in heaven.  Why is it called the Albigensian Crusade rather than the Cathar Crusade?  In order to answer this, it is important to remember that Cathar is only of many names the Roman Church invented for members of this particular brand of Gnostic Dualism.  Among many other names, they were called Albigensians, from the (erroneous) belief that they were concentrated in the town of Albi.  The term Cathar has become the standard term for them only in recent times.

The term Albigensian Crusade (or Cathar Crusade, or Cathar Wars) is used loosely to describe a series of formal Crusades, interspersed with continual warfare against the people of the Languedoc which lasted for some forty years.  The (unspecified) target of the Crusade was Raymond V of Toulouse and his vassals, but Raymond joined the Crusade himself.  This meant that he and his vassals came under the protection of the Church.  That is why the first stages of the Crusade were directed against Béziers and Carcassonne, which did not belong to Raymond of Toulouse, but to a close relative Ramon-Roger Trencavel.  The trick did not work for long, and soon Raymond was excommunicated and his castles were under attack.  After the initial sieges of Béziers and Carcassonne, the (mainly French) Crusader forces were led by Simon de Montfort and later his son Amaury de Montfort, who were responsible for series of bloody battles, sieges and massacres. Voltaire wrote about this crusade against the people of the Languedoc.

We now think of the Languedoc as part of France, but the reality was very different in the thirteenth century.  Local chronicles invariably refer to the foreign crusaders as The French, for the very good reason that the chroniclers did not consider themselves or their countrymen as French and neither did anyone else.

The Crusades are conventionally held to have ended in 1244 with the fall of the Château of Montségur ( The Name in Occitan. Click here to find out more about occitan. Montsegùr) , though Cathars were still being burned alive into the fourteenth century.  An Inquisition was founded to extirpate the last vestiges of Cathar belief.

 

The siege of Carcassonne 1209 (© Gordon Napier 2011)

The three knights are identifiable by their arms.

 

Guillaume des Roche

Eudes duc de Bourgogne

Simon de Montfor

des Roches

 

Bourgogne

 

Montfort

 

 

 

 

Who led the Crusade?

 

Most short accounts of the Cathar Crusades, mention only Simon de Montfort, and many of them confuse him with his son, also called Simon, who played such an important role in English history. The truth is slightly more complex.

 

Arnaud Amaury, Abbot of Cîteaux.  This was the military leader of the crusaders during the first stages of the war.  It was he who was responsible for the massacre at Béziers and for the immortal words "Kill them all. God will know his own".  Some 20,000 men, women and children were killed in this "exercise of christian charity".  He also led the siege at Carcassonne.  Click here for more on Arnaud Amaury.

 

Simon de Montfort (Sr), Earl of Leicester.  At the time of the Cathar Crusade, Simon had already build a reputation as a Crusader in the Holy Land.   He was a rare comodity within the Catholic fold.   He was not only a fearsome warrier, but also a good tactitian and strategist.   Furthermore, he had distinguished himself in the Fourth Crusade by refusing to attack his fellow Christians in Byzantium.   Now he found himself among the army assembled under the Abbot of Cîteau to attack the Cathars.   As Simon had distinguished himself once again in battle he was offered the leadership.  When he tried to decline Arnaud Amaury ordered him (on behalf of Pope Innocent III) to accept, which he did.  For more about Simon de Montfort click here Next.

 

Amaury de Montfort.  Simon's eldest son, Amaury or Amery, could not fill his father's shoes, and ceded formal rights to his territories to the King of France.  For more about Amoury de Montfort, click here Next.

 

King of France. The first Cathar crusade was lead by vassals of Philippe Augustus. As the French wars over the continental possessions of the French King subsided his son, Prince Louis, the future Louis VIII King of France joined the Crusade. As king, Louis VIII continued to prosecute wars against the Count of Toulouse and died on his way home from Crusading in the Languedoc. When he died his wife Blanche of Castile, became regent for their infant son Louis IX (later St-Louis), and she also actively pursued the war against her cousin the Count of Toulouse. Ten years later Louis IX reached majrity and took over leadership of the War himself.

 

 

 
 
 
 

The Battle of Muret (1213), a turning point in the Cathar Crusade depicted in Grandes Chroniques de France, Manuscrit français 2813, fol. 252v. (created 1375-1380), in the Bibliothèque nationale de France

 
 

Crusader Francs besieging Nicea. They are catapulting the heads of captured enemies over the city walls to terrorise the citizens. Guillaume de Tyr. Many of the Crusaders against the Cathar came from traditional crusader families.

 

Pope Innocent III excommunicates a group of Cathars. From the fourteenth century, Chronique de France (Chronique de St Denis), British Library, Royal 16, g VI f374v.

 

Defensless Languedoc Cathars are cut down by French Catholic Crusaders. From the fourteenth century Chronique de France (Chronique de St Denis), British Library, Royal 16, g VI f374v. This is the right hand side of a two panel illustration (The left half is shown above). In this panel The leading crusader can be identified by his coat of arms as Simon de Montfort .

 

Tours of Cathar Castles & Cathar Country

 
 
 

Techniques of Medieval Warfare

 

The Middle Ages saw the development of new modes of warfare encompassing both pitched battles and siege warfare. Then as now the western world was engaged in an arms race. New weapons technology prompted new defensive technologies, for example the introduction of cross-bows led quickly to the adoption of plate armour rather than chain mail.

During the Dark Ages Christendom had largely abandoned the sophisticated techniques of Classical times, arguing that anything not mentioned in the bible was of satanic origin and that God would ensure victory for his faithful followers.

Along with the scientific advances, military techniques had been abandoned and forgotten. This affected building as well as weaponry. For example the Greeks and Romans had used iron ties to join blocks of stone together. Knowing the effects of rust they encased the iron in lead so that it did not rust, and stonework using this technique survives intact today. Medieval builders did not know about the lead protection and used iron ties that rusted, expanded and fractured the surrounding stone.

So it was with military engines like the balista and military techniques like the Romans' famous tortoise. So too, ancient techniques for making quick-setting concrete and prefabricated defences were forgotten.

To some extent the development of the Renaissance and the Enlightenment is the story of the rediscovery of ancient techniques.

Click on the following links for more information (which will open in a new window)

Preparations for Medieval Battle
Medieval Pitched Battles
Medieval Fortifications
Medieval Siege Warfare

Medieval Water Supplies
Medieval Supplies and Logistics
Medieval Equipment & Weapons
Medieval Weapons Technology
Medieval Communications
Medieval Military Organisation
Medieval Women at War

 

 

Tours of Cathar Castles & Cathar Country

 
 
 
 

 

 
 
 
 
 
 
Working trebuchet at Château des Baux
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 


GUIDED TOURS OF CATHAR CASTLES OF THE LANGUEDOC

You can join small exclusive guided tours of Cathar Castles
led by an English speaking expert on the Cathars
who lives in the Languedoc
(author of www.cathar.info and www.catharcastles.info )

Selected Cathar Castles. Accommodation provided. Transport Provided.

Cathar Origins, History, Theology.
The Crusade, The Inquisition, and Consequences

Click here to visit the Cathar Country Website for more information

 

Coats of Arms of the Main Participants of the Cathar Wars

 

This section covers the coats of arms of the nobles involved in the Wars against the people of the Languedoc, also known as the Cathar Wars or Albigensian Crusade, spanning the period 1208 to 1255. It is divided into two parts:

We are much endebted to the work of Brian Timms who first collated much of the heraldic material on which this material is based.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 


GUIDED TOURS OF CATHAR CASTLES OF THE LANGUEDOC

You can join small exclusive guided tours of Cathar Castles
led by an English speaking expert on the Cathars
who lives in the Languedoc
(author of www.cathar.info and www.catharcastles.info )

Selected Cathar Castles. Accommodation provided. Transport Provided.

Cathar Origins, History, Theology.
The Crusade, The Inquisition, and Consequences

Click here to visit the Cathar Country Website for more information

 

Coats of Arms of the Crusaders


King Louis VIII
King of France (1223-1226)†.
Louis VIII, heir of the throne of France, claimed the English throne for a year in 1216/1217.
Marmande 1219, Avignon 1226
Source:
Canso de la crozada - Guilhem [Guillaume or William] de Tudèle
Chronica - Guilhem de Puylaurens (The Chronicle of William of Puylaurens)

 

King Louis IX
King of France

 

Click on the following link for more on the Seal of Louis IX

The Duke of Burgundy: Eudes duc de Bourgogne
Duke of Burgundy (1192-1218).
Took part at Béziers 1209, Carcassonne 1209, Bouvines 1214
According to the Anonynous of Béthune, Eudes wore the coat of arms of William des Barres during the battle of Bouvines but kept his own shield
Source:
Canso de la crozada - Guilhem [Guillaume or William] de Tudèle
Historia Albigensis - Pierre des Vaux de Cernay

 

Bourgogne
William II Count of Geneva, Guillaume II Comte de Genève (1185-1252)
Béziers 1209, Carcassonne 1209
Source: Canso de la crozada - Guilhem [Guillaume or William] de Tudèle
Genève
BriennePierre II de Courtenay [Auxerre & Nevers] (1150/1167-1219)
Lord of Courtenay. Lord of Montargis (1180-1184). Given to the king as relief on the sucession of Nevers. Count of Nevers (until 1199) Count of Auxerre and Tonnerre (1184-1219) through his first wife Agnès de Nevers (1184). Marquis of Namur from 1212 thanks to his second wife Yolande de Hainaut (also known as Yolande de Flandre).
Emperor of Constantinople (elected in 1216 and crowned in 1217).
King Louis VII of France was Peter of Courtenay's uncle. Peter was cousin of Raymond VI of Toulouse.
Third Crusade, Béziers 1209, Carcassonne 1209, Lavaur 1211, Bouvines 1214
Source:
Canso de la crozada - Guilhem [Guillaume or William] de Tudèle
Historia Albigensis - Pierre des Vaux de Cernay
Courtenay

Comte (Count) Gaucher de Châtillon
Comte de St-Pol from 1196 (through marrying Elisabeth de St-Pol). Seigneur de Châtillon (sur Marne), Grand-Butler of France and of Champagne (nominated by Thibaut III) and Seneschal of Burgundy (nominated by Eudes III).
He fought on the 3th Crusade and at Béziers 1209, Carcassonne 1209, Marmande 1219, and Bouvines 1214
Source:
Canso de la crozada - Guilhem [Guillaume or William] de Tudèle
Historia Albigensis - Pierre des Vaux de Cernay

Châtillon

Comte (Earl) Hugues de Lacy [Ireland] (1176-1242)
Hugh de Lacy, Earl of Ulster from 1205.
Matthew Paris gives a different blazon: "vert, a bordure or".
Hugh fought at Béziers 1209, Carcassonne 1209, Castel 1211, Beaucaire 1216, Toulouse 1218. Simon de Montfort granted him the lordships of Castelnaudary and Laurac.
Source: Canso de la crozada - Guilhem [Guillaume or William] de Tudèle

Lacy

Simon IV de Montfort (c 1164-1218)
Lord of Montfort, Earl of Leicester through his mother Amicie, countess of Leicester (vassal of the king of England for this earldom). Lord of Bardelle, Bonnelles, Les Bordes, La Celle, Conflans, Epernon, Gambais, Houdan, Méré, Montchauvet, St-Léger, Sonchamp.
Brother of Amaury III de Montfort. Half-Brother of Guillaume IV des Barres.

Montfort

Simon IV married Alix, sister of Mathieu II de Montmorency.
A baron's coronet is shown here, because his claim to an earldom was disputed though he was often referred to as a count - the French were sympathetic to his claims to the earldom.

He was at Lagny 1180, the disastrous Fourth Crusade, Béziers 1209, Carcassonne 1209. He was leader of the Albigensian Crusade after the capture of Carcassonne, and led the Crusader army at Termes 1210, Lavaur 1211, Toulouse 1211, Castel 1211, Muret 1213, Beaucaire 1216, and Toulouse 1218 where he was killed

Source:
Canso de la crozada - Guilhem [Guillaume or William] de Tudèle
Historia Albigensis - Pierre des Vaux de Cernay

Chronica - Guilhem de Puylaurens (The Chronicle of William of Puylaurens)
Chronique - Baudouin d'Avesnes

Click on the following link for more on Simon de Montfort

Click on the following link for more on the Seal of Simon de Montfort

Later arms of the de Montfort family. Click for a larger image in a new window.Guy de Montfort (1166-1229)
Lord of La Ferté-Alais, Béthencourt, Lombers & Castres. Brother of Simon IV.
Guy died at the castle of Vareilles near Pamiers in 1229.
He fought in the Third Crusade and the Fourth Crusade, and also at: Muret 1213, Beaucaire 1216, Toulouse 1218, and Avignon 1226
Source:
Canso de la crozada - Guilhem [Guillaume or William] de Tudèle
Chronica - Guillaume de Puylaurens

MontfortAmaury VI de Montfort (
1192-1241)Lord of Montfort from 1218 then count of Montfort from 1226. Constable of France from 1231. Son of Simon IV.
According to Fox-Davies 'Complete guide to heraldry' the banner shown on the right is borne for the honour of Hinkley.
He fought at Beaucaire 1216, Toulouse 1218, Marmande 1219, Avignon 1226, and the Crusade of 1239
Source:
Canso de la crozada - Guilhem [Guillaume or William] de Tudèle
Historia Albigensis - Pierre des Vaux de Cernay
Chronica - Guilhem de Puylaurens (The Chronicle of William of Puylaurens)

Montfort
Milon de Bar/Seine
Comte of Bar (sur-Seine) (1189-1219).
Blazon drawn from a seal dated 1202. The colours are assumed to be those of Brienne (same family).
fought at Béziers 1209, Carcassonne 1209, and on the Fifth Crusade
Source:
Historia Albigensis - Pierre des Vaux de Cernay
Bar/Seine
BrienneBrienneJean I de Brienne (1170-1237)
Comte of Eu, King of Jerusalem from 1210 to 1223, Emperor of Constantinople from 1231 to 1237.
Son of Erard de Brienne.
He fought in the disastrous Fourth Crusade, at Béziers 1209, and in the Fifth crusade.
Source: Canso de la crozada - Guilhem [Guillaume or William] de Tudèle
Brienne

Adhémar de Poitiers Adhémar III de Poitiers-Valentinois (??? - 1277)
Count of Valentinois (1187-1230)
Count of Diois (1189-1230).
Fought at Béziers 1209 and Carcassonne 1209
By 1216 he had changed sides as by then he was supporting Raymondet, the young Raymond of Toulouse at Beaucaire in 1216. Later he made his peace with Simon de Montfort
Source:
Canso de la crozada
- Guilhem [Guillaume or William] de Tudèle
, I, 12 & II, 154, (Janet Shirly p36 + note 2 on p 37 & p 100)
Historia Albigensis - Pierre des Vaux de Cernay §489 (p 221), §§596-9 (pp 268-270),

arms of Adhémar III de 
                              Poitiers-Valentinois

Guy III de Châtillon (1196-1226) †
Comte de Saint-Pol (sur Ternoise).
Comte de Nevers, Auxerre & Tonnerre through his wife.
Son of Gaucher III de Châtillon.
He fought at Avignon 1226 †
Source: L'épopée cathare - Michel Roquebert

Châtillon

Guy d'Auvergne (1165-1224)
Count of Auvergne
The red device is a banner (technically a gonfanon) a reference to that borne by Eustache III, Count of Boulogne, who, with his brother (Godefroy de Bouillon) conquered Jerusalem during the first crusade.
He was present at Quercy 1209
Source: Canso de la crozada - Guilhem [Guillaume or William] de Tudèle

Auvergne
Géraud IV d'Armagnac "Trancaléon" (1170-1229)
Count of Fézensac , Count of Armagnac, Viscount of Fézenguet
He fought at Toulouse 1218
Source; L'épopée cathare - Michel Roquebert
Armagnac
Robert II Comte de Dreux (1154-1218)
Count of Dreux, Braine and Longueville
This familly is of royal blood through the male lineage. Robert II was a cousin of King Philip II and of Raymond VI of Toulouse. He married Yolande, sister of Enguerrand III de Coucy.
He fought at Lagny 1180, On the Third Crusade and at Arsouf 1191, Termes 1210, and Bouvines 1214
Source: Historia Albigensis - Pierre des Vaux de Cernay
Dreux
Gautier (Walter) II d'Avesnes (1170-1245)
Walter became Count of Blois when he married in 1218 the Countess Marguerite de Blois, sister of Thibault VI de Blois. Walter was son of James d'Avesnes.
He fought at Avignon in 1226
Source: Historia Albigensis - Pierre des Vaux de Cernay
Bourgogne
Guillaume III de Ponthieu "Talvas" (1179-1221)
Count of Ponthieu. Son of John I.
Fought at Termes 1210 and Bouvines 1214
Bourgogne
Jean de Chalon "le sage" (1190-1267)
Count of Burgundy and Chalon (sur Saône). Count of Auxonne from 1230.
John was the son of Stephen III, Count of Auxonne. He took the name and the coat of arms of Chalon. In 1237, he swapped Auxonne and Chalon with the duke of Burgundy, for the lordship of Salins (and its valuable saltworks).
John married Mahaut, sister of Duke Eudes III of Burgundy, then Isabeau daughter of Robert I of Courtenay and finally Laure of Commercy.
He fought at Toulouse 1211 and Avignon 1226
Source: Canso de la crozada - Guilhem [Guillaume or William] de Tudèle
Chalon
Thibault I de Bar (1158 - 1214)
Thiébaut Ier (1158 † 1214), Comte de Luxembourg,

Married 1176 Laurette de Looz († 1190)
Married 1189 (annulled 1195) Ermesinde (1189 † 1211), daughter of Guy de Brienne, comte de Bar-sur-Seine and of Elisabeth de Chacenay
Married 1197 Ermesinde Ire (1186 † 1247), comtesse de Luxembourg, daughter of'Henri IV, Comte de Luxembourg

Count of Bar-le-duc and of Mousson. Seigneur of Briey, Stenay and Longwy. Count of Luxembourg from 1197 through his 3rd marriage with Ermesinde de Luxembourg.

Theobald was the brother of Henry I de Bar and father of Henri II (1190 † 1239), who married Philippe de Dreux in 1219 daughter of Robert II, comte de Dreux and of Yolande de Coucy.

Thibault fought at Toulouse 1211 and Henri II's men (the Barrois) at Beaucaire 1216
Source:
Canso de la crozada - Guilhem [Guillaume or William] de Tudèle
Historia Albigensis - Pierre des Vaux de Cernay

Bar

 

 

 

Bar

Raoul III de Neslede (1150-1237)
Count of Soissons.
He was at Lagny in1180 and fought at Bouvines 1214, (England 1216) and Toulouse 1218
Source: Canso de la crozada - Guilhem [Guillaume or William] de Tudèle

Soissons

Pierre de Dreux «Maucler» (1191-1250)
Peter, Count of Brittany (1213-1237) and Count of Penthièvre. Earl of Richmond (1219-1250). He was the Son of Robert II de Dreux.
He was in England 1216 and fought at Marmande 1219, Avignon 1226, and in the Crusade of 1239 and the Seventh Crusade.
Source: Canso de la crozada - Guilhem [Guillaume or William] de Tudèle

Dreux
Guillaume IV des Baux (1200-1239)
Count of Orange. Technically a Prince. The title was conferred by the Emperor (The des Baux had not wanted to recognise the Counts of Toulouse (as Marquises of Provence) as their overlords).
He faught at Avignon 1226
Source: L'épopée cathare - Michel Roquebert
Orange
Etienne III de Bourgogne (Comté) (1170-1240)
Stephen III was count of Auxonne. He is also known as Stephen of Auxonne or Stephen of Chalon. He was descended from the Counts of Burgundy through the male line. His 3rd wife, Agnes, was daughter of Robert II of Dreux. The first two were Beatrix of Chalon and Blandine of Cicon.
He faught at Avignon 1226
Source: L'épopée cathare - Michel Roquebert
Bourgogne Comté
Philippe II de Courtenay † Marquis de Namur (1216-1226).
Also known as Philip II of Namur, Philip was the son of Peter de Courtenay.
He fought at Bouvines 1214 and Avignon 1226 †
Source: L'épopée cathare - Michel Roquebert
Namur

Thibaut IV de Champagne "le chansonnier" (1201-1253)
Count of Champagne and later King of Navarre (from 28 August 1234) through his mother, Blanche of Navarre, sister of Sanche VII.
Theobald IV was the son of Theobald III.
He fought at Avignon 1226, on the Crusade of1239, and the Seventh Crusade.
Source: L'épopée cathare - Michel Roquebert

 

 

Champagne

Arnould II de Guines (1170-1220)
Count of Guines. Castellan of Bourbourg. Lord of Ardres.
He fought at Bouvines 1214, England 1216, Marmande 1219
Source: Hystoria Albigensis - Commentaires de Pascal Guébin & Henri Maisonneuve

Guines

Hervé IV de Donzy (1173-1223) [Auxerre & Nevers]
Lord of Vierzon , Count of Nevers (1199-1223)., Count of Auxerre and Tonnerre after the death of Peter de Courtenay (but he took possession of Auxerre only after the death of its bishop).
Lord of Donzy (1206-1223)
His first wife was Mahaut, daughter of Peter de Courtenay.
Béziers 1209, Carcassonne 1209, Bouvines 1214, England 1216, Fifth Crusade, Marmande 1219
Source:
Canso de la crozada - Guilhem [Guillaume or William] de Tudèle
Historia Albigensis - Pierre des Vaux de Cernay

Donzy

Vicomte (Viscount) Roard de Donges
Fought at Béziers 1209, Carcassonne 1209, Lavaur 1211, Castel 1211
Source:
Canso de la crozada - Guilhem [Guillaume or William] de Tudèle
Historia Albigensis - Pierre des Vaux de Cernay

Hystoria Albigensis - commentaires de Pascal Guébin & Henri Maisonneuve

Donges

Bishop of Comminges
Fought in Gascony in 1212. Pierre des Vaux de Cernay says "The Bishop of Comminges led some of our knights into Gascony and defended it valiantly against the enemies of the faith."
Source:
Historia Albigensis - Pierre des Vaux de Cernay, §
365 (p 171)
Hystoria Albigensis - commentaires de Pascal Guébin & Henri Maisonneuve

   

Vicomte (Viscount) Raymond de Turenne (1165-1212)
Viscount of Turenne, lord of Alvignac and St Céré ( vassal of the Duke of Aquitaine).
Viscount of Brassac, lord of Castelnau (vassal of the count of Toulouse).
Co-lord of Séverac (vassal of the viscount of Millau - suzerain the king of Aragon).
The son of Raymond II de Turenne.
He fought at Quercy 1209 and against the Spanish Moors at Las Navas 1212
Source: Canso de la crozada - Guilhem [Guillaume or William] de Tudèle

Turenne

Vicomte (Viscount) Bertrand
Viscount of Bruniquel and Montclar (1224-1249). The illegitimate son of Raymond VI of ToulouseBertrand was half-brother of Raymond VII of toulouse. Bertrand married the Comtoresse de Bruniquel (Countess of Bruniquel) from whom he held the viscounty.
According to late XIIIth century rolls, the blazon is argent and gules, but a note of Lacabane suggests argent should be replaced by or.
He fought at Toulouse 1211
Source:
Canso de la crozada - Guilhem [Guillaume or William] de Tudèle
Chronica - Guilhem de Puylaurens (The Chronicle of William of Puylaurens)

Turenne

Vicomte (Viscount) Baudouin
Baudouin was the brother of raymond VI. He was brought up in France and fought on the side of the Crusaders. He bore the same arms as his brother, On one famous occasion causing confusion when he appeared on the horizon with an army which, because of his banner, was mistaken for Languedoc troops.
Source:
Canso de la crozada - Guilhem [Guillaume or William] de Tudèle
Chronica - Guilhem de Puylaurens (The Chronicle of William of Puylaurens)

Arms of the Counts of Toulouse. Click for a larger image in a new window.

Renaud VI d'Aubusson (~1185-1249)
Viscount of Aubusson. Son of Guy.
He fought at Toulouse 1218
Source: Canso de la crozada - Guilhem [Guillaume or William] de Tudèle

Aubusson

Geoffroy VI de Châteaudun (c1195-1249)
Viscount of Châteaudun. Lord of Mondoubleau , Château-du-Loir, Mayet, La Suze and Louplande.
Link: www.francebalade.com .
Colours are conjonctured.
Fought at Carcassonne 1240 and on the Seventh Crusade †
Source:
Canso de la crozada - Guilhem [Guillaume or William] de Tudèle
Chronica - Guilhem de Puylaurens (The Chronicle of William of Puylaurens)

Châteaudun
Guichard IV de Beaujeu "le grand" (1160-1216)
Lord of Beaujeu
Guichard IV married Sybille of Hainaut sister of the Count of Flanders and Hainaut.
Guichard IV was brother-in-law of king Philip Augustus of France and Peter of Courtenay emperor of Constantinople. Constable of France.
He fought at Béziers 1209, Carcassonne 1209 and England 1216
Source: Historia Albigensis - Pierre des Vaux de Cernay

Gaucher I de Joigny (>1161-1237)
Lord of Châteaurenard
The tincture of the lion is uncertain.
Gaucher married first Adélaïs de Traynel in 1195 then Amicie, daughter of Simon de Montfort, in 1226.
He faught at Béziers 1209 and Carcassonne 1209
Source: Historia Albigensis - Pierre des Vaux de Cernay

Joigny

Pierre Bermond VI d'Anduze et Sauve [Toulouse] (1190-1215)
Prince of Anduze, Lord of Sauve and Sommières. Co-Lord of Alès.
Brother-in-law of Raymond VII de Toulouse.
Peter fought in the disastrous Fourth Crusade, and at Béziers 1209 and Carcassonne 1209 [but on which side ?]
Source:
Canso de la crozada - Guilhem [Guillaume or William] de Tudèle

Anduze

Juhel (or Juël) III de Mayenne (1168-1220)
Lord of Mayenne.
Juhel was half-brother toAmaury de Craon. Juhel died in Egypt.
He fought on the 3rd and Fourth Crusades, and at Lavaur 1211 and Marmande 1219
,2

Mayenne

Bouchard I de Marly (1170-1226)
Lord of Marly (le-Roi), Montreuil-Bonnin, Magny (les-hameaux), Saissac and Saint-Martin.
Son of Matthew I de Marly. Bouchard I was cousin of Mathieu II de Montmorency. †
He fought at Lavaur 1211 (?), Toulouse 1211, Castel 1211, Muret 1213, Toulouse 1218 and Avignon 1226 † . He was awarded the castle at Saissac, siezed from Bertrand de Saissac.

Source:
Canso de la crozada - Guilhem [Guillaume or William] de Tudèle
Historia Albigensis - Pierre des Vaux de Cernay

 

Mathieu II de Montmorency "le grand" [France] (1174-1230)
Constable of France from about 1218. Lord of Ecouen, Conflans and Montmorency
One of his grand-mothers was Alice, daughter of King Henry I of England.
Brother in law of Simon IV de Montfort.
Bouvines 1214, Avignon 1226
Source: L'épopée cathare - Michel Roquebert

Montmorency

Humbert V de Beaujeu [Bourgogne, Burgundy] (1197-1250)
Lord of Beaujeu
Constable of France (1240-1250).
Humbert V was the son of Guichard IV.
Avignon 1226, Seventh Crusade
Source: L'épopée cathare - Michel Roquebert

Bertrand I de Gourdon [Limousin] (~1185-~1240)
Lord of Gourdon
Bertrand de Gourdon was involved in the death of Richard Coeur de Lion, in 1199, during the siege of Chalus (near Limoges).
Quercy 1209, Toulouse 1218
Source: Canso de la crozada - Guilhem [Guillaume or William] de Tudèle

Gourdon

Bertrand II de Cardaillac [Toulouse] (1190-1250)
Lord of Cardaillac, Bioule, Saint-Cirq, la Popie, Rudelle, Thémines & Concots.
He followed the crusaders, took Puylaroque and plundered Lavaur.
Quercy 1209
Source: Canso de la crozada - Guilhem [Guillaume or William] de Tudèle

Cardaillac

Otton de Trazegnies [Hainault, Hainaut]
Lord of Trazegnies.
Marmande 1219
Source: Hystoria Albigensis - Commentaires de Pascal Guébin & Henri Maisonneuve

Trazegnies

Mathieu II de Marly (Marley) [France]
Lord of l'Haÿ (les-roses)
Son of Matthew I de Marly.
Castel 1211
Source: Historia Albigensis - Pierre des Vaux de Cernay

Marly

Lambert de Thury [Nevers & Auxerre] (1155-1224)
Also written Thurey, Thurin, Toury etc.... Also known as Lambert de Crécy or Lambert de Croissy
Lambert became Lord of Limoux (known as Lambert de Limoux) and Puicheric. He was the commander of the beliguered garisson in the citadel at Beaucaire in 1216. He restored the Castle at Saissac.
Béziers 1209, Carcassonne 1209, Termes 1210, Beaucaire 1216, Toulouse 1218
Source:
Canso de la crozada - Guilhem [Guillaume or William] de Tudèle:
Hystoria Albigensis - commentaires de Pascal Guébin & Henri Maisonneuve

Thury

Raoul VII de Mauvoisin
Lord of St André from 1228.

http://poirier.valveri.free.fr/nobles_ancetres/mauvoisi.htm
He was present at Marmande 1219
Source: Hystoria Albigensis - Commentaires de Pascal Guébin & Henri Maisonneuve

Mauvoisin

Arnoul IV d'Audenarde (Oudenarde) (~1180-1242):
Lord of Audenarde & Pamèle. Baillif of Flanders
He was at Marmande 1219
Source: Hystoria Albigensis - Commentaires de Pascal Guébin & Henri Maisonneuve

Audenarde

Enghelbert IV d'Enghien [Brabant] (1185-1242)
Lord of Enghien.
He was at Marmande 1219
Source: Hystoria Albigensis - Commentaires de Pascal Guébin & Henri Maisonneuve

Enghien

Renaud II de l'Isle [Anjou]
Lord of l'Isle. Viscount of Blois.
He was at Marmande 1219
Source: Hystoria Albigensis - Commentaires de Pascal Guébin & Henri Maisonneuve

Isle

Guillaume de Cayeux [Picardy]
William, Lord of Cayeux (-sur-mer) and Lord of Bouillancourt.
He was at Lagny 1180, and went on the Third Crusade, Termes, Bouvines 1214
Source: Historia Albigensis - Pierre des Vaux de Cernay

Cayeux

Eustache de Cayeux [Picardy] (11?-1211):
Eustache is the son of William, Lord of Cayeux.
He went onthe Fourth Crusade and fought at Toulouse 1211
Source:
Canso de la crozada - Guilhem [Guillaume or William] de Tudèle
Historia Albigensis - Pierre des Vaux de Cernay

Cayeux

Robert III de Mauvoisin [France] (1172-1217)
Lord of Aulnay-sous-bois, Sauvigny and Coulommiers.
Fourth Crusade, Termes 1210
Source: Canso de la crozada - Guilhem [Guillaume or William] de Tudèle

Mauvoisin

André IV de Vitré [Bretagne, Britany] (1180-1250)
Andrew, Lord of Vitré.
Termes and Seventh Crusade
Source: L'épopée cathare - Michel Roquebert

Vitré

Eon de Pontchâteau [Bretagne, Britany]
Lord of Pontchâteau.
Termes, Bouvines 1214
Source: L'épopée cathare - Michel Roquebert

Pontchâteau

Etienne II de Sancerre [Blois] (1190-1252):
Lord of Saint-Brisson (now Saint-Brisson-sur-Loire). Lord of Châtillon (Châtillon-sur-Loire or Châtillon-Coligny ?). Butler of France from 1248.
Second son of Stephen I de Sancerre.
Bouvines 1214, England 1216, Avignon 1226
Source: L'épopée cathare - Michel Roquebert

Sancerre

Guillaume IV des Barres [France] (1185-1249)
Lord of la Ferté-Alais. William IV was Simon IV de Montfort's half-brother, their mother Amicie, countess of Leicester, married first Simon III de Montfort, then William III des Barres. William IV is the son of William III.
Lagny 1180, Muret 1213
Source:
Canso de la crozada - Guilhem [Guillaume or William] de Tudèle
Historia Albigensis - Pierre des Vaux de Cernay

Chronica - Guilhem de Puylaurens (The Chronicle of William of Puylaurens)

Barres

Enguerrand III de Coucy (le bâtisseur, the builder) [Picardie, Picardy] (1174-1243)
Lord of Coucy. Count of Roucy (~1202) when he married Beatrix de Vignory widow of John I de Roucy. Count of Perche.
He was the Son of Raoul I. His daugther, Mary, married King Alexander II of Scotland and gave birth to King Alexander III.
Enguerrand built the biggest tower in Christendom for his castle of Coucy : 177 feet high, 105 feet wide, 25 feet thick at his base.
His motto was: "King am not, nor Prince, nor Duke, nor Count either, I am the sire of Coucy".
He was at Lavaur 1211, Bouvines 1214, England 1216, Marmande 1219 , Avignon 1226
Source: Historia Albigensis - Pierre des Vaux de Cernay

Coucy

Simon VI de Neauphle (de Ricosie) [France]:
Castellan of Neauphle (-le-château).
The blazon is drawn from a seal (www.cg78.fr) dated 1206. Colours are uncertain. From 1217, after a second marriage, Simon adopted a seal with a lion. Again the colours are uncertain, but the lion might be argent as the castellans of Neauphle (Neaufle) were ligemen of the Montforts.
The Neauphle family founded the Cistercian Abbey of des Vaux de Cerney, whose sixth Abbot, Guy, and his nephew, a monk at the abbey called Peter, played important roles in the Cathar Crusade. Peter wrote the Historia Albigensis, a primary source much cited on this page. Click here for more on Guy and Peter des Vaux de Cerney, and the Historia Albigensis.

Fourth Crusade, Toulouse 1211, Castel 1211, Bouvines 1214
Source: Historia Albigensis - Pierre des Vaux de Cernay

Neauphle

Amaieu V d'Albret [Gascogne, Gascony] (1192-1240) :
Lord of Albret (Labrit)
Termes, Toulouse 1218, Marmande 1219
Source: Canso de la crozada - Guilhem [Guillaume or William] de Tudèle

The Coat of Arms of the Lords of Termes

Guy I de Lévis: [France] (1180-1230)
Lord of Lévis (-St-Nom). He become Lord de Mirepoix and Marshall of the Faith. His family later inherited Saissac.
He was the son of Philip I de Lévis who had taken part in the Third Crusade.
Béziers 1209, Carcassonne 1209, Termes, Lavaur 1211, Castel 1211, Beaucaire 1216, Toulouse 1218
Source:
Canso de la crozada - Guilhem [Guillaume or William] de Tudèle
Historia Albigensis - Pierre des Vaux de Cernay

Hystoria Albigensis - commentaires de Pascal Guébin & Henri Maisonneuve

Lévis

Alain de Roucy (Alan of Roucy) [Picardie, Picardy] (~1170~1222) :
Muret 1213, Beaucaire 1216, England 1216, Toulouse 1218
Alan de Roucy was a vassal of the Count of Champaigne and also held fiefs from the French King (Philip Augustus).

Alan de Roucy arived in the Languedoc from France towards the winter of 1211, just as Simon de Montfort set off from Caselnaudry for Narbonne. He would remain in the Languedoc for ten years and was granted the lordship of Termes in 1213 by Simon de Montfort and later Bram and Montreal. He was killed defending Montreal in 1221.

Source:
Canso de la crozada - Guilhem [Guillaume or William] de Tudèle, laisse 111
Historia Albigensis - Pierre des Vaux de Cernay [279]. The Sibly's also cite Molinier 181 & 185.
Chronica - Guilhem de Puylaurens (The Chronicle of William of Puylaurens) , XXXI
Chronique - Baudouin d'Avesnes

Roucy

Payen de Corbeil
Viscount of Corbeil.
http://poirier.valveri.free.fr/nobles_ancetres/corbeil2.htm
Muret 1213
Source:
Historia Albigensis - Pierre des Vaux de Cernay

Chronique - Baudouin d'Avesnes

Corbeil

Florent de Ville [Lorraine]
Muret 1213, Bouvines 1214
Source: Chronique - Baudouin d'Avesnes

Ville

Robert I de Courtenay [Gâtinais] (1168-1239)
Lord of Champignelles, Châteaurenard, Conches, Nonancourt, Charny & other estates. Grand-Butler of France in 1223.
Brother of Peter II de Courtenay.
Cousin of Raymond VI of Toulouse.
Béziers 1209, Carcassonne 1209, Lavaur 1211, England 1216, Avignon 1226
Source: Historia Albigensis - Pierre des Vaux de Cernay

Courtenay

Nègre de La Redorte [Béziers]
Lord of La Redorte.
Canting arms. The blazon "or 3 redortes (a kind of twisted tree branch) sable (black)" alludes to the name of the bearer.
Beaucaire 1216
Source: Historia Albigensis - Pierre des Vaux de Cernay

La Redorte

Amaury I de Craon (1170-1226) [Anjou]
Lord of Craon. Seneschal of Anjou from 1222 to 1226.
He married in 1212 Jeanne, elder daugther of William des Roches. Amaury is the half-brother of Juhel de Mayenne.
Toulouse 1218
Source:
Canso de la crozada - Guilhem [Guillaume or William] de Tudèle
Historia Albigensis - Pierre des Vaux de Cernay

Craon

Lord of l'Isle-Jourdain & Dunes [Toulouse]
Lord of Clermont-Dessus
Toulouse 1218
Source: L'épopée cathare - Michel Roquebert

Arms of de l'Isle Jourdain.

Geoffroy de la Truie [Flandre, Flanders]
(Geoffrey of the Sow!)
Source:
Canso de la crozada - Guilhem [Guillaume or William] de Tudèle

Truie

Michel V de Harnes [Flandre, Flanders] (1170-1231) .
Son of Michel IV, who was also in England in 1216.
http://members.aol.com/mikesclark/genealogy/counts.html:
Fourth Crusade, Bouvines 1214, England 1216, Toulouse 1218
Source:
Canso de la crozada - Guilhem [Guillaume or William] de Tudèle
Historia Albigensis - Pierre des Vaux de Cernay

Harnes

Rainier de Rancon
Toulouse 1218
Source: Canso de la crozada - Guilhem [Guillaume or William] de Tudèle

Rancon

Guillaume I de Mello [France] (1163-1248)
Lord of Saint-Bris and then lord of Mello.
Son of Dreux IV.
Toulouse 1218
Source: Canso de la crozada - Guilhem [Guillaume or William] de Tudèle

Mello

Dreux de Mello [Anjou] (11?-1249)
Lord of Saint-Maurice-Thizouaille. Lord of Loches.
Son of Dreux IV de Mello.
Toulouse 1218, Seventh Crusade†
Source: Canso de la crozada - Guilhem [Guillaume or William] de Tudèle

Mello

Erard de Villehardouin [Champagne] (1175/80-1226)
Lord of Lézinnes (probably Lizines) en 1207.
Lord of Villehardouin & Villy (1213).
Marshall of Champagne in 1223.
Son of Geoffroy.
Bouvines 1214, Avignon 1226 †

Villehardouin

Guillaume des Roches [Anjou] (1165-1222)
Seneschal of Anjou from 1199 to 1222. Lord of Longue-Jumelle and Château-du-loir .
Father-in-law of Amaury de Craon.
Third Crusade, Béziers 1209, Carcassonne 1209, Marmande 1219
Source:
Canso de la crozada - Guilhem [Guillaume or William] de Tudèle
Historia Albigensis - Pierre des Vaux de Cernay

des Roches

Archambaud VIII de Bourbon (Dampierre) [Bourbon] (1197-1242)
Lord of Bourbon
Avignon 1226
Source: L'épopée cathare - Michel Roquebert

Bourbon
Savary de Mauléon [Poitou] (1181-1233)
Savaric de Mauléon, Seneschal of Saintonge, Seigneur of Châtellaillon, Talmond, Benon, Angoulême, la Flotte en Ré and Fontenay.
The coat of arms is taken from a seal (colours are not certain). According to the "Gilles le Bouvier" armory (No 866 / 879) Mauléon bore Argent a lion gules. With a bordure sable besanté according to the armory of Navarre (No 1301). Rietstap gives Gules a lion Or, which are the civic arms of the town of Mauléon (with a bordure sable and 8 besants). In the "salles des Croisades" at Versailles, the coat of arms is Or a lion Gules.
Castel 1211, Avignon 1226, Fifth Crusade
Source: L'épopée cathare - Michel Roquebert
Mauleon
Pierre I (1180-1231) de Voisins [France]
Pierre II (1205-1255) de Voisins
Lord of Voisins. Became lords of Limoux (until 1296), Arques, Alet-les-Bains, Reddes [Rennes-le-Château], Caderonne [Espéraza], Couiza, Bugarach, Villarsel du Razes, Montferran, Blanchefort, Sougragne, Luc, Belcastel, Couffoulens, Pech-les-St-Hilaire etc. Seneschal of Toulouse in 1254 and of Carcassonne in 1255.
(The branch of the family of de Voisins which remained near Paris is inverted as 3 fusils gules on a field argent)
Third Crusade, Toulouse 1218, Carcassonne 1240
Source:
Canso de la crozada - Guilhem [Guillaume or William] de Tudèle
Historia Albigensis - Pierre des Vaux de Cernay
Voisins
Jean I de Beaumont [France] (1190-1256)
Lord of Coubron, Villemomble and Clichy-la-Garenne. Chamberlain of France from 1240.
Second son of Adam I. Brother of Adam II.
England 1216, Carcassonne 1240, Seventh Crusade
Source: Olivier de Termes, le cathare et le croisé - Gauthier Langlois
Beaumont
Raymond de Capendu
Source: Rapport du sénéchal de Carcassone à la Reine Blanche de Castille - Guillaume des Ormes, Arch. Nat J 1030 n°073 - traduction
Bar

Thibault V de Blaison [Anjou] (1160-1229)
Lord of Blaison and Mirebeau. Seneschal of Poitou.
Colours of the arms unknown
Las Navas 1212, Toulouse 1218
source: 1

Blaison

Melun

 

 
     

In 1180 or 1181, a great tournament was held at Lagny-sur-Marne on the borders of France and Champagne. The history of William Marshal relates that 19 counts, the Duke of Burgundy and about 3000 knights from France, Flanders, the Low Lands, Germany, Normandy, England, Anjou and elsewhere. Henry the Young King, son and heir of King Henry II of England came with more than 200 knights. They fought for glory and money in what looked like genuine pitched battles. The objective was not to kill, but to capture men or horses. Tournaments were held almost every two weeks. Here William Marshal earned fortune and fame in a few years. He and his fellow knight captured and ransomed over 100 knights in 10 months of tournaments. Many of those who attended would later find themselves as fellow cruseders in the Holy Land and in the Languedoc.

Sources

1. Canso de la crozada - Guilhem [Guillaume or William] de Tudèle ( The Name in Occitan. Click here to find out more about occitan. Occitan )
2. Historia Albigensis - Pierre des Vaux de Cernay (Latin)
3. Chronica - Guillaume de Puylaurens (Latin)
4. Hystoria Albigensis - commentaires de Pascal Guébin & Henri Maisonneuve (French)
5. L'épopée cathare - Michel Roquebert (French)
6. Chronique - Baudouin d'Avesnes (Old French)
7. La croisade contre les Albigeois - Pierre Belperron (French)
8. Praeclara francorum fascinora - Bernard Gui (Latin)
9. Cronica- Jaime I de Aragon (Aragonese - Catalan)
10. Olivier de Termes, le cathare et le croisé - Gauthier Langlois (French)
11. Rapport du sénéchal de Carcassone à la Reine Blanche de Castille - Guillaume des Ormes, Arch. Nat J 1030 n°073 - traduction
12. Commentaires p164 - Jean Duvernoy

 

 

Coats of Arms of the defenders of the Languedoc during the Cathar Wars

Peter II, King of Aragon - Pere el Catòlic.
Peter II, (1174-1213) was King of Aragón (1196-1213) and count of Barcelona (as Pere I), son and successor of Alfonso II. He was surnamed the Catholic.   The King of Aragon played a key role against the crusaders.

Peter II defended the méridionals' cause, taking the part of his relative and vassal, Raymond VI, Count ofToulouse.

Bar

According to legend, the arms of Aragón were origially plain gold: in heraldic terms "Or plain". Geoffroy le Velu, king of Aragón, was mortally wounded fighting on the side of Charles le Chauve against the Normans. Charles, to show his gratitude for Geoffroy's bravery, dipped his fingers in his blood and smeared them onto the shield, making the present arms, in heraldic terms "Or four pallets gules".

Peter died at the battle of Muret in 1213.

Click on the following link for more on Peter II of Aragon
Click on the following link for more about Aragon and Catalonia Next.
Click on the following link for more about the relationship between the Houses of Aragon and Toulouse Next.
Click on the following link for more about the arms of Aragon Next.

Source:
Canso de la crozada - Guilhem [Guillaume or William] de Tudèle
Historia Albigensis - Pierre des Vaux de Cernay

Chronica - Guilhem de Puylaurens (The Chronicle of William of Puylaurens)
Cronica - Jaime I de Aragon

 

Raymond VI of Toulouse

 The Name in Occitan. Click here to find out more about occitan.  Ramon VI de Tolosa, 
 The Name in French.  Raimond VI de Toulouse 
Raymond of St-Gilles (1156-1222),
Count of Toulouse (1196-1222).

Count of Toulouse
Duke of Narbonne (France)
Marquis of Provence (Empire)
Count of Quercy, Rouergue and Saint-Gilles
Count of Agen (Aquitaine).
Count of Melgueil (Pope)

 

Arms of the Counts of Toulouse. Click for a larger image in a new window.

Raymond's mother, Constance, was daugther of the king of France.  He married Jeanne of England, then Eleonor, sister of King Peter of Aragon.

Raymond VI was the reigning Count of Toulouse at the time of the outbreak of the Cathar Wars.  He was sovereign of his territories, and held his lands under the feudal system from a number of his relatives.   Most of these lands were held as a vassal of the King of Aragon, but some he held from the Holy Roman Emperor, some from the King of France and some from the King of England. On 27 January 1213, Raymond VI paid homage to Peter II of Aragon (which in the event lasted only until the battle of Muret 12th September the same year when Peter was killed in battle).

Raymond VI was the father of Raymond VII, Count of Toulouse.

Raymond was the principle victim of the Crusade. He was present at Béziers 1209, Carcassonne 1209, Lavaur 1211, Toulouse 1211, Castel 1211, Muret 1213, Toulouse 1218.

Click on the following link for more on the House of Toulouse
Click on the following link for more on Counts of Toulouse
Click on the following link for more on Raymond VI ofToulouse
Click on the following link for more on the the role of Raymond VI Count of Toulouse in the Cathar Crusade

Source:
Canso de la crozada - Guilhem [Guillaume or William] de Tudèle
Historia Albigensis - Pierre des Vaux de Cernay

Chronica - Guilhem de Puylaurens (The Chronicle of William of Puylaurens)

Raymond VII of Toulouse  
 The Name in Occitan. Click here to find out more about occitan.  Ramon VII de Tolosa:   
 The Name in French.  Raimond VII de Toulouse 
Raymond of St-Gilles (1197-1249),
Count of Toulouse (1222-1249)

Count of Toulouse, Duke of Narbonne, Count of Quercy, Rouergue and Saint-Gilles (France)
Count of Agen (Aquitaine).
Marquis of Provence (Empire)
Count of Melgueil (Pope)
Muret 1213, Beaucaire 1216, Toulouse 1218

 

Arms of the Counts of Toulouse. Click for a larger image in a new window.

Raymond VII was the son of Raymond VI, Count of Toulouse.

Click on the following link for more on the House of Toulouse
Click on the following link for more on Counts of Toulouse
Click on the following link for more on Raymond VII ofToulouse
Click on the following link for more on the role of Raymond VII Count of Toulouse in the Cathar Crusade
Click on the following link for more on the Seal of Raymond VII Count of Toulouse

Source: Canso de la crozada - Guilhem [Guillaume or William] de Tudèle

Bernard IV de Comminges (1150-1226)
Count of Comminges (vassal of Toulouse until 1201, after that, of Aragon)
Lord of Samatan and Muret (vassal of Toulouse).
He became father-in-law of Guy of Monfort
Bernard III, father of Bernard IV, is known to have been Templar (attested in 1175) which could explain the orgin of the arms.
Toulouse 1211, Castel 1211, Muret 1213, Toulouse 1218
Source:
Canso de la crozada - Guilhem [Guillaume or William] de Tudèle
Historia Albigensis - Pierre des Vaux de Cernay

Chronica - Guilhem de Puylaurens (The Chronicle of William of Puylaurens)

Comminges

Centule I d'Astarac (1180-1233)
Occitan: Centolh d'Astaragues
Count of Astarac from 1174 or 1175 until his death.
He is recorded in a sirvente of Bertran de Born as having joined the alliance against Richard I (the Lionheart) in 1183. Bertran calls him E•n Centols. Centule raised a company of Gascons along with Gaston VI of Béarn and sent them north under one Brunus (or Brenus) to aid Adhemar V of Limoges in besieging a church on the Gorre in February. The company was routed by Richard. Centule participated in the Reconquista in Spain.
Las Navas 1212, Marmande 1219
Source:
Canso de la crozada - Guilhem [Guillaume or William] de Tudèle
Chronica - Guilhem de Puylaurens (The Chronicle of William of Puylaurens)

Astarac

Raymond-Roger de Foix (1155-1223) :
Count of Foix.
Lord of Pamiers (Toulouse)
Lord of Andorra, Castillon, Prayas (Aragon).
Raymond-Roger married Philippa, the sister of Gaston VI de Béarn, William I de Moncade and William-Raymond III de Moncade.
Link: www.foixstory.com
Third Crusade, Lavaur 1211, Toulouse 1211, Castel 1211, Muret 1213, Toulouse 1218 Source: Canso de la crozada - Source:
Canso de la crozada - Guilhem [Guillaume or William] de Tudèle
Historia Albigensis - Pierre des Vaux de Cernay

Chronica - Guilhem de Puylaurens (The Chronicle of William of Puylaurens)

Arms of the Counts of Foix.

Raymond VII was the son of Raymond VI, Count of Toulouse.

Click on the following link for more on the House of Toulouse
Click on the following link for more on Counts of Toulouse
Click on the following link for more on Raymond VII ofToulouse
Click on the following link for more on the role of Raymond VII Count of Toulouse in the Cathar Crusade
Click on the following link for more on the Seal of Raymond VII Count of Toulouse

Source: Canso de la crozada - Guilhem [Guillaume or William] de Tudèle

Roger III de Comminges Couserans (1182-1256)
Viscount of Couserans
Comte of Palhars through his wife.
This familly is a branch of the House of Comminges.
Nephew of Raymond-Roger comte of Foix.
Toulouse 1218
Source: Historia Albigensis - Pierre des Vaux de Cernay

Comminges

Raymond-Roger Trencavel (1185-1209)
Viscount of Béziers and Albi (vassal of the count of Toulouse). Viscount of Carcassonne and Razes (vassal of the count of Barcelona (= King of Aragon)).
The name Trencavel means nutcrackers (Trenca avelana).
Raymond-Roger Trencavel was married to Agnes of Montpellier. His uncle was Raymond VI Count of Toulouse.
Carcassonne 1209 .

The coat of arms of the House of Trencavel

The arms of Trencavels are known through several seals. They all show a shield barry and what looks like ermine. Twooptions have been speculated: gules and ermine; and or and ermine..

The coat of arms of the House of TrencavelTrencavelArguments for or and ermine: The Rietstap armory, volume I page 195, at the name of Béziers (no source indicated): Languedoc. Barry or and ermine. Many authors have followed Rietstap. The arms have become popular and associated with Trencavel. They can be seen in the streets of Carcassonne. The civic arms of the city of Béziers are similar with France Ancient in chief. (the semé fleurs-de-lis have been replaced by 3 fleurs-de-lis and the barry has been replaced by 3 bars).

TrencavelTrencavelArguments for gules and ermine: The coat of arms borne by other knights of the region such as Saissac, Barbaira, Durban and Hunaud de Lanta match both colours and patterns. (Except for Saissac and Barbaira, the arms are taken from Rietstap and are therfore not 100% reliable). "Ermine" applied on "or" is unconventional, almost unique for the time, even if, strictly speaking, it does not break the rules of heraldry because fur can be applied on metal. The association of "ermine" and "gules", on the contrary is frequent.

Brian Timms who, as far as I am aware is the only person to have studied this problem in detail, favours gules and ermine, but or and ermine is far more common today.

Click on the following link for more about Raymond-Roger Trencavel
Click on the following link for more about Raymond Trencavel II
Click on the following link for more about the House of Trencavel Next.

Source:
Canso de la crozada - Guilhem [Guillaume or William] de Tudèle
Historia Albigensis - Pierre des Vaux de Cernay

Chronica - Guilhem de Puylaurens (The Chronicle of William of Puylaurens)

TrencavelRaymond II Trencavel (1207-1267)
Son of Raymond-Roger.
Carcassonne 1240, Seventh Crusade
Source:
Canso de la crozada - Guilhem [Guillaume or William] de Tudèle
Historia Albigensis - Pierre des Vaux de Cernay

Chronica - Guilhem de Puylaurens (The Chronicle of William of Puylaurens)

The coat of arms of the House of Trencavel

Click on the following link for more about Raymond Trencavel II
Click on the following link for more about the House of Trencavel Next.
Click on the following link for more on the Seal of Raymond Trencavel II Viscount of Carcassonne and Beziers



Gaston VI de Moncade de Béarn ("le bon") (1165-1214)
Viscount of Béarn
Viscount of Oloron
Lord of Tortosa and Fraga
Castel 1211
The cows are in memory of the ancient people "vaccéens" (which sounds like "cowboys" in Occitan) who submited to the Romans in 100 BC.
Source:
Historia Albigensis - Pierre des Vaux de Cernay

Béarn

Vivien II de Lomagne (1153-1221)
Viscount of Lomagne.
In the XIVth century, several members of the familly used seals showing two rams (see "Sceaux Gascons" pp 182-184). These are the civic arms of Lectoure, capital of Lomagne.
Toulouse 1218, Marmande 1219
Source: Canso de la crozada - Guilhem [Guillaume or William] de Tudèle

Lomagne

Raymond-At de Castelbon (11?-1211)
Viscount of Castelbon.
Toulouse 1211
Source: Canso de la crozada - Guilhem [Guillaume or William] de Tudèle

Castelbon

Pierre IV de Fenolhet [Aragon] (1189?-1243)
Viscount of Fenouillèdes.
Although his father was a de Saissac, Peter took the name and the arms of his mother Ava de Fenolhet, Viscountess of Fenouillèdes.
Carcassonne 1240
Source:
Canso de la crozada - Guilhem [Guillaume or William] de Tudèle

Fenolhet

Ot de Terride
Source: Canso de la crozada - Guilhem [Guillaume or William] de Tudèle

Terride

Miquel de Rada [Aragon]
Source: Cronica- Jaime I de Aragon

Rada

Hug V de Mataplana
Lord of Mataplana from 1197.
Las Navas 1212, Muret 1213
Source: Cronica- Jaime I de Aragon

Mataplana ?

Miguel de Luesia [Aragon]
Source: Canso de la crozada - Guilhem [Guillaume or William] de Tudèle
Cronica - Jaime I de Aragon

Luesia

Bernard de Castelbisbal [Aragon]
Source: Cronica- Jaime I de Aragon

Castelbisbal ?

Dalmas de Creixell [Aragon]
Source: Canso de la crozada - Guilhem [Guillaume or William] de Tudèle


Cronica - Jaime I de Aragon

Creixell

Raymond III de Termes [Razes] (1170-1210)

Lord of Termes.
Termes
Source: Canso de la crozada - Guilhem [Guillaume or William] de Tudèle

The Coat of Arms of the Lords of Termes

Blasco d'Alagon [Aragon]
Source: Cronica- Jaime I de Aragon

Alagon ?

Guillaume de Roquefort (11? -1211)
Termes, Toulouse 1211
Source: Historia Albigensis - Pierre des Vaux de Cernay

 

Roquefort

Guillem de Cervera [Aragon]

Cervera

Gomez de Luna †
Source: Cronica- Jaime I de Aragon

Luna ?

Guillaume de Horta
Source: Cronica- Jaime I de Aragon

Horta ?

Garcia Roméu [Aragon]

Roméu

Savary or Savoric de Mauléon [Poitou] (1181-1233)
Savaric de Mauléon, Seneschal of Saintonge, Seigneur of Châtellaillon, Talmond, Benon, Angoulême, la Flotte en Ré and Fontenay.
The coat of arms is taken from a seal (colours are not certain). According to the "Gilles le Bouvier" armory (No 866 / 879) Mauléon bore Argent a lion gules. With a bordure sable besanté according to the armory of Navarre (No 1301). Rietstap gives Gules a lion Or, which are the civic arms of the town of Mauléon (with a bordure sable and 8 besants). In the "salles des Croisades" at Versailles, the coat of arms is Or a lion Gules.
Castel 1211, Avignon 1226, Fifth Crusade

Click on the following link for more on Savaric de Mauléon

Source:
Canso de la crozada - Guilhem [Guillaume or William] de Tudèle
Historia Albigensis - Pierre des Vaux de Cernay

Mauléon

Gaston II de Gontaut [Toulouse] (1200-1251)
Gaston de Gontaut (or Gontaud) was lord of Biron.
Marmande 1219 , Seventh Crusade
Source: Canso de la crozada - Guilhem [Guillaume or William] de Tudèle

Gontaut

Pierre de Durban [Razes]
Peter de Durban was Lord of Montégut (en Couserans).
Peter was the standard bearer of the count of Foix during the siege of Toulouse of 1218 (cf. Canso).
Toulouse 1218
Source: Canso de la crozada - Guilhem [Guillaume or William] de Tudèle

Durban

Pelfort de Rabastens
Source: Canso de la crozada - Guilhem [Guillaume or William] de Tudèle

Rabastens

Arsieu II de Montesquiou (1175-1259)
Seigneur de Montesquiou, de Sansopouy, de Paders, de Serres & de Belloc.
Toulouse 1218
Source: Canso de la crozada - Guilhem [Guillaume or William] de Tudèle

Montesquiou

Araimfre de Montpezat
Source: Canso de la crozada - Guilhem [Guillaume or William] de Tudèle

Montpezat

Guiraud Hunaud de Lanta (~1170-12?)
Lord of Lanta.
Son of Guilhem Hunaud de Lanta.
Toulouse 1218
L'épopée cathare - Michel Roquebert

Hunaud de Lanta

Bernard V de Comminges (1195-1241) [Toulouse & Aragon]
Count of Comminges (vassal of Toulouse until 1201, after that, of Aragon)
Lord of Samatan and Muret (vassal of Toulouse).
The son of Bernard V.
Toulouse 1218
Source: Canso de la crozada - Guilhem [Guillaume or William] de Tudèle

Comminges

Guilhem de Hunaud de Lanta (~1140-<1232)
Lord of Lanta.
Toulouse 1218
Source: Canso de la crozada - Guilhem [Guillaume or William] de Tudèle

Hunaud de Lanta

Guy de Cavaillon [Marquisat de Provence] (~1175~1230)
Lord of Cavaillon.
Beaucaire 1216
Source:
Canso de la crozada - Guilhem [Guillaume or William] de Tudèle

Cavaillon

Pierre-Raymond de Rabastens
Source: Canso de la crozada - Guilhem [Guillaume or William] de Tudèle

Rabastens

Géraud II Adhémar (~1165-1232)
Lord of Monteil which became Monteil-Adhémar then Montélimar.
Viscount of Marseilles (1212).
Beaucaire 1216
Source: Canso de la crozada - Guilhem [Guillaume or William] de Tudèle

Adhémar

Géraud III Adhémar (~1185<1248)
Lord of Monteil which became Monteil-Adhémar then Montélimar.
Lord of Rochemaure.
Son of Gerald II.Beaucaire 1216
Source: Canso de la crozada - Guilhem [Guillaume or William] de Tudèle

Adhémar

Pons Amanieu & Guilhem Amanieu [Toulouse]
It is thought that Pons Amanieu and William Amanieu may be the Lords of Madaillan.
Toulouse 1218, Marmande 1219
Source: Canso de la crozada - Guilhem [Guillaume or William] de Tudèle

Madaillan

Raymond Gaucelm [Toulouse]
Lord of Lunel.
Beaucaire 1216
Source: Canso de la crozada - Guilhem [Guillaume or William] de Tudèle

Lunel

Hugues de LaMothe
Knight from Gascony or Quercy.
The coat of arms of Hugh de Lamothe is discribed in the Canso chapter 31, lines 35 "E'l pros n'Ucs de La Mota e'l sieus vermelhs leos"
(And the valiant Hugh de Lamothe and his red lion).
and again at line 68; "Per qu'en remas vermelhs lo sieu blancs gonfanons"

Toulouse 1218
Source: Canso de la crozada - Guilhem [Guillaume or William] de Tudèle

La Mothe

Arnaud de Blanquefort
Source:
Canso de la crozada - Guilhem [Guillaume or William] de Tudèle
Chronica - Guilhem de Puylaurens (The Chronicle of William of Puylaurens)

Blanquefort

Jourdain de Saissac (1195-~1270)
Lord of Saissac.
Carcassonne 1240
Source: Chronica - Guilhem de Puylaurens (The Chronicle of William of Puylaurens)

Saissac

Bernard-Hugues de Serralongue (Cabrenç) [Aragon] (-1255)
Lord of Cabrenç.
Carcassonne 1240
Source:
Chronica - Guilhem de Puylaurens (The Chronicle of William of Puylaurens)
"Rapport du sénéchal de Carcassone à la Reine Blanche de Castille - Guillaume des Ormes Arch. Nat J 1030 n°073 - traduction http://paratge.chez.tiscali.fr/carcassonne/1240.htm

Serralongue

Jourdain de Lanta
Source:
Hystoria Albigensis
- Commentaires de Pascal Guébin & Henri Maisonneuve

Lanta

Roger de Durfort
Source:
Olivier de Termes, le cathare et le croisé
- Gauthier Langlois

Durfort

Chabert Aymeric de Barbaira [Béziers] (~1200~1278)
Chabert was Lord of Barbaira (also written Barbera).
He commanded the castle of Queribus (1244-1255).
Aymeric is the brother of Chabert.
Carcassonne 1240
Source: Commentaires p164 - Jean Duvernoy

Barbera

Olivier III de Termes [Razes] (~1200-1274)
Lord of Termes.
Oliver III was the son of Raymond III.
Oliver used a seal in 1228 depicting a plain shield (colour unknown but assumed to be gules). Two other seals attributed to him by Dom Vaissette are:
1. a lion
2. three chevrons with a label of 5.
According to the author of "Olivier de Termes, le cathare et le croisé", the two seals mentioned here have been confused with those of Philippe de Montfort.
Termes of Majorca bore quartered saltire 1 and 4 : gules a fleur de lis argent, 2 and 3 : argent a reversed moon.
Carcassonne 1240, Seventh Crusade, Eighth Crusade
Source:
Chronica - Guilhem de Puylaurens (The Chronicle of William of Puylaurens)
"Rapport du sénéchal de Carcassone à la Reine Blanche de Castille - Guillaume des Ormes Arch. Nat J 1030 n°073 - traduction http://paratge.chez.tiscali.fr/carcassonne/1240.htm

 

Seal of Olivier de Termes (assumed gules) Legend:† SIGILLUM : OLIVER : DE : TERME : From a charter where Olivier de Termes hands overs his lands and the château d'Aguilar, may 1241. French National Archives J 399 n° 39. DOUET D'ARCQ, n° 3675.)

Siege of Damiette 1248
Olivier's crossbowmen on landing ships cover the unloading of Crusader troops.
(Miniature from the Grandes Chroniques de France, XIIIth c., Bibliothèque nationale de France).

 

The Coat of Arms of the Lords of Termes

Bernard de Villeneuve-Montréal and Pons de Villeneuve-Montréal
Bernard and his brother Pons were co-lords of Montréal.
They married two daughters of Hugues de Roumégoux and Braïde de Fanjeaux.
Carcassonne 1240
Source: Chronica - Guilhem de Puylaurens (The Chronicle of William of Puylaurens)

The Coat of Arms of the Lords of Termes

Sicard de Puylaurens [Aragon]
Toulouse 1218
Source: Canso de la crozada - Guilhem [Guillaume or William] de Tudèle

Puylaurens

Guilhem de Peyrepertuse [Aragon]
Lord of Peyrepertuse.
colours are conjectured. They are based upon the Salamanca armory which gives for the name of Pertusa: or, 3 lozenges sable at the chief.
Carcassonne 1240
Source: Olivier de Termes, le cathare et le croisé - Gauthier Langlois

Peyrepertuse

Dragonet de Mondragon [Marquisat de Provence] (~1170-1236)
Lord of Mondragon and Montauban. Dragonet was the honourable intermediary through whom Simon de Montfort negotiated the surrender of the citadel at Beaucaire.
Beaucaire 1216
Source: Canso de la crozada - Guilhem [Guillaume or William] de Tudèle

Mondragon

Ramon de Montauban [Marquisat de Provence] (~1195-1220)
Raymond de Montauban
Beaucaire 1216
Source: Canso de la crozada - Guilhem [Guillaume or William] de Tudèle

Mondragon

Hugues de la Baliste [Marquisat de Provence] (1180-1218)
Beaucaire 1216
Source: Canso de la crozada - Guilhem [Guillaume or William] de Tudèle

la Baliste

Isoard de Die d'Aix-Artaud [Marquisat de Provence] (~1190 > 1243)
Lord of Montmaur-en-Diois.
Lord of Chatillon-en-Dois ?
Beaucaire 1216
Source: Canso de la crozada - Guilhem [Guillaume or William] de Tudèle

Aix

Guillaume d'Aix-Artaud de Die [Marquisat de Provence] (~1165>1230)
Lord of Montmaur.
Beaucaire 1216
Source: Canso de la crozada - Guilhem [Guillaume or William] de Tudèle

Aix

Hugues de Lemps (de Laens) [Marquisat de Provence]
Lord of Lemps.
Beaucaire 1216
Source: Canso de la crozada - Guilhem [Guillaume or William] de Tudèle

Lemps

Bertrand Porcellet [Comté de Provence] (11?-1228)
"Bertrand little pig"
Co-lord of Arles.
Beaucaire 1216 ?
Source: Canso de la crozada - Guilhem [Guillaume or William] de Tudèle

Porcellet

Géraud de Niort [Razes]
Brother of Bernard-Othon.
Colours are conjonctured (based upon those of Lordat).
Carcassonne 1240, Muret 1213
source:10, Mahul - V,p117

Niort

Guilhem de Niort
Source: Rapport du sénéchal de Carcassone à la Reine Blanche de Castille - Guillaume des Ormes, Arch. Nat J 1030 n°073 - traduction

?

Albeta de Tarascon [Marquisat de Provence]
Source: Canso de la crozada - Guilhem [Guillaume or William] de Tudèle

Tarascon

Hugues d'Alfaro
Seneschal of Agen and Castellan of Avignonet.
Hugues was the brother-in-law of Raymond VII of Toulouse.
Raymond d'Alfaro was the son of Hugues. Hugues coordinated the masacre of Inquisitors at Avignonetin 1242.
Toulouse 1211, Castel 1211, Muret 1213, Toulouse 1218
Source: Canso de la crozada - Guilhem [Guillaume or William] de Tudèle

Alfaro

Isarn de Puylaurens
Source: Canso de la crozada - Guilhem [Guillaume or William] de Tudèle

Puylaurens

Aimery de Laurac (Montréal) [Razes] (?-1211)
Lord of Laurac and co-lord of Montréal.
Aimery was the son of Blanche de Laurac who was married to a member of the house of Roquefort. He had 4 sisters among whom where Esclarmonde and Guiraude. Guiraude married Guilhem Peyre, lord of Lavaur. Guiraude and Aimery both were murdered at Lavaur in 1211 by the crusaders.
Lavaur 1211
Source:
Canso de la crozada - Guilhem [Guillaume or William] de Tudèle
Historia Albigensis - Pierre des Vaux de Cernay

Chronica - Guilhem de Puylaurens (The Chronicle of William of Puylaurens)

?

In 1180 or 1181, a great tournament was held at Lagny-sur-Marne on the borders of France and Champagne. The history of William Marshal relates that 19 Counts, the Duke of Burgundy and about 3000 knights from France, Flanders, the Low Lands, Germany, Normandy, England, Anjou and elsewhere. Henry the Young King, son and heir of King Henry II of England came with more than 200 knights. They fought for glory and money in what looked like genuine pitched battles. The objective was not to kill, but to capture men or horses. Tournaments were held almost every two weeks. Here William Marshal earned fortune and fame in a few years. He and his fellow knight captured and ransomed over 100 knights in 10 months of tournaments. Many of those who attended would later find themselves as fellow cruseders in the Holy Land and in the Languedoc.

 

The Battle of Bouvines, which took place on 27 July 1214, was a medieval battle which ended the 1202–1214 Anglo-French War. It was fundamental in the early development of France in the Middle Ages by establishing the French crown's sovereignty over the Angevin lands of Brittany and Normandy.

 

Philip Augustus of France defeated an army consisting of Imperial German, English and Flemish soldiers, led by Otto IV of Germany. Other leaders included Count Ferrand of Flanders, William de Longespee and Renaud of Boulogne. The defeat was so decisive that Otto was deposed and replaced by Frederick II Hohenstaufen; Ferrand and Renaud were captured and imprisoned and King John of England was forced to sign the Magna Carta by his discontented barons. Philip was himself able to take undisputed control of most of the territories in France that had belonged to King John of England, Otto's maternal uncle and ally.

Battle of Bouvines, 1214

 
 

 

 

 
 

 

 

 

 

 
 
 

 

 

 

 

 

Further Information on Cathars and Cathar Castles

 

 

 

If you want to cite this website in a book or academic paper, you will need the following information:

Author: James McDonald.
Title: Cathars and Cathar Beliefs in the Languedoc
url: http://www.cathar.info
Date last modified: 15 September 2014

 

If you want to link to this site please see How to link to www.cathar.info

 

For enquiries about newspaper & magazine articles, interviews, locations, consultancy,
films & television programmes or book reviews please e-mail james@cathar.info

 

 
 The Cross of Toulouse. Click to see information about it.

 

Click on the following link for recommended Books on the Cathars Next.

Click on the following link for the (imaginary) role of the Cathars in the various mysteries of the Languedoc Next.


   ::::   Link to www.cathar.info   :::    © C&MH 2010-2014   :::   contact@cathar.info   :::   Advertising   :::