Cathars and Cathar Beliefs in the Languedoc
More Information on the Cathars, Cathar Beliefs & Gnostic Dualism




Basic Tenets


Cathar Believers

Cathar Elect

Afterlife, Heaven & Hell

Other Beliefs

Cathar Ceremonies

Cathar Prayer

The Cathar Hierarchy



Albigensian Crusade

Who led the Crusade ?

Crusader Coats of Arms

Defender Coats of arms

Medieval Warfare






Cathars on Catholics

Catholics on Cathars

Catholic Propaganda

"Kill Them All ... "






Inquisition documents



Cathar Castles

Cathar Castle Photos



Early Gnostic Dualism





Historical Studies

Popular Culture

Catholic Inheritance

Protestant Inheritance

Cathar Vindications

Do Cathars still exist ?





The Catholic Side

The "Cathar" Side

Counts of Toulouse

The Cross of Toulouse



Detailed Chronology





A Cathar Glossary



If you are interested in the Cathars, their history and their beliefs, there is no shortage of material.  The problem is sorting the wheat from the chaff. Here is some of the wheat.










Gnostic and Cathar Documents


The Gospel of St Thomas    An early gospel, possibly first century and earlier than (and a primary source for) the earlier "Canonical" gospels.

A Gnostic gospel: The Book of John the Evangelist      

The Lyons Ritual   


New Testament & Cathar Ritual. Translation by Jean Duvernoy of MS PA 36, Bibliotèque de la Ville de Lyon:


Orthodox Documents


Anna Comnena, on the Bogomils c. 1110 in English translation from the Greek. The Bogomils were almost certainly the source of Catharism in the West




Accounts of the Cathar Crusades


The Siege of Termes from The Song of the Cathar Wars: The History of the Albigensian Crusade, translated by Janet Shirley (Aldershot: Ashgate, 1996)

The Siege of Termes: Sections 171 to 192 of chapter 7 of the Historia Albigensis by Pierre des Vaux-de-Cernay

Historia Albigensium by Pierre des Vaux-de-Cernay (pdf in the Original Latin, Migne, PL, vol 213, col 0543-0711)

An extract from Historia Albigensium by Pierre des Vaux-de-Cernay reproduced by Odericus Raynaldus in the 17th century and translated into English by S. R. Maitland

The Siege of Toulouse 1217-18 according to The Chronicle of William of Puylaurens, Chapters 26-8   

Canso de la crozada - Guillaume de Tudèle




Catholic & Inquisition Documents


Inquisition Documents - Jacques Fournier


Medieval Sourcebook, Primary Documents Jacques Fournier, Bishop of Pamiers 1318-1325: The Inquisition Record. [At SJSU] English translation by Nancy P. Stork of selected confessions by supposed heretics to Bishop Jacques Fournier and the Inquisition at Pamiers.


Accused of holding Cathar beliefs


Guillaume Fort of Montaillou, accused of being a Cathar believer, and burned alive as a relapsed heretic on 2 August 1321.

Brune Pource, widow of Guillaume Pourcel of Montaillou, daughter of Prades Tavernier, accused of holding cathar beliefs and of associating with Cathars

Fabrissa den Riba de Montaillou., accused of holding cathar beliefs and of associating with Cathars

Béatrice de Planissolles, noblewoman, Chatelaine de Montaillou, later wife of Barthélemy Amilhac, suspected of Cathar beliefs.

Barthélemy Amilhac, priest and husband of Béatrice de Planissolles suspected of Cathar beliefs.

Grazide Lizier, widow of Pierre Lizier of Montaillou and, the local priest's concubine, suspected of Cathar beliefs.

Bernard Franque of Goulier, accused of dualist beliefs (a good v a bad god).

Arnaud Cogul de Lordat, accused of dualist and docetic beliefs.

Guillaume Guilabert of Montaillou, deceased, accused of being a Cathar.

Raimonde den Arsen of Montaillou, accused of holding Cathar beliefs.

Alamande Guilabert, widow of Jean Guilabert of Montaillou, accused of greeting a Cathar.

Arnaud Faure of Montaillou, convicted of associating with Cathars.

Bernard Benet of Montaillou, accused of having associated with Cathars.

Guillaume Autast, Bailiff of Ornolac, accused of believing in reincarnation, doubting the doctrine of the resurection of the dead, and suspected of other heresies.

Guillemette Benet, Widow of Bernard Benet of Ornolac, accused of doubting the doctrine of the resurection of the dead = Guillemette d'Ornolac

Jacqueline d'en Carot: accused of doubting the doctrine of the resurection of the dead.

Arnaud de Savinhan of Tarascon, accused of doubting Catholic doctrine including the Resurrection of the dead.

Pierre Magre, of Rabat, accused of associating with Cathars.

Aude Fauré, wife of Guillaume Fauré, of Merviel, accused of doubting the doctrine of transubstantiation. = Aude de Merviel = Aude

Arnaud de Monesple, Priest, accused of not reporting "heretical" beliefs


Accused of holding Waldensian Beliefs


Raymond de Sainte-Foy, aka Raymond de la Côte, accused of being a Waldensian (Vaudois = the Poor of Lyons) Deacon and burned alive for refusing to swear an oath.

Jean de Vienne = Jean Marinie, r, accused of being a Waldensian (Vaudois the Poor of Lyons) believer, and burned alive for refusing to swear an oath.

Huguette de Vienne, wife of Jean de Vienne or Jean Marinier, accused of being a Waldensian (Vaudoisthe Poor of Lyons) believer, and burned alive for refusing to swear an oath.

Agnes Francou, accused of being a Waldensian (Vaudoisthe Poor of Lyons) believer, and burned alive for refusing to swear an oath. (= Agnes)


Accused of other "heresies"


Pierre Sabatier: of Varilhes, accused of pointing out that the Catholic practice of placing a lighted candle in the mouth of a dying person was as much use as placing a lighted candle in their anus.

Guillemette Battegay, widowow of Pierre Battegay of Pamiers, accused of associating with [cathar ?] heretics = Guillemette

Arnaud Gelis, also called Botheler "The Drunkard" of Mas-Saint-Antonin: accused of communicating with the dead

Navarre Bru, widow of Pons Bru of Pamiers: accused of having talked to Arnaud Gelis about her dead husband.

Baruch of Germany: Interrogation of a Jew who had been forced to convert to Roman Catholicism, but remained a practicing Jew




Rainerius Sacconi, Summa on the Cathars and the Poor of Lyons



Inquisition Documents - Bernard de Caux and Jean de St Pierre


Records of Inquisitors Bernard de Caux and Jean de St Pierre in the Lauragais 1245-1246, 1253 (MS 609 Biblioteque Municipal de Toulouse) - with introductions, by Jean Duvernoy:


Inquisition Documents - Geoffroy d'Ablis


Inquisition Register of Geoffroy d'Ablis - (MS lat. 4269 B.N. Paris) - with introductions, by Jean Duvernoy:

Sentences of Jacques Fournier & Jean de Beaune, delivered at the cemetry of St-John de Pamiers on 8 March 1320 (fragment) "Sermon de Pamiers" - MS AD Ariège J 127 - in Latin, with introduction, in French, by Jean Duvernoy.

Register of Inquisitor Jean Galand - Deposition of Bertrand de Lagarrigue in 1285 - (Doat XXVI, ff° 245 - 254 v°) In Latin with French translation, by Jean Duvernoy.

Enquiry by Bernard de Caux - in Bas-Quercy, Toulousain (Doat XXII, f° 1 to 106,) In Latin with French translation, by Jean Duvernoy. Agen (1243-44), Cahors (1244-45), Toulouse (1246-1247). Table of names (people +places)

Fragment of the Register of Jean de Saint Pierre and Reginald de Chartres - Lauragais (MS Bonnet) - 1256 In Latin with French introduction and translation, by Jean Duvernoy.

Register of Pons de Parnac and other Inquisitors of Toulouse, Lauragais 1273 - 1282 (Doat XXV et XXVI ff° 1-79). In Latin with French translation, by Jean Duvernoy.

Register DDD of the Inquisition of Carcassonne. (Sentences 1323-1327) (Béguins, Narbonnaise et Biterrois) Doat XXVII. In Latin with French introduction, by Jean Duvernoy. Lodève 2 July 1323, Pamiers 7 August 1324, Carcassone 23 February 1325, Carcassonne 1 March 1327.

Register GGG of the Inquisition of Carcassonne. (Sentences 1328-1329) (Béguins, Narbonnaise et Biterrois) Doat XXVIII. In Latin with French introduction, by Jean Duvernoy. Carcassonne 11 November 1328, Prouille 24 December 1328, Narbonne 9 December 1328, Pamiers 13 January 1329, Béziers 19 Mayi 1329, Carcassonne 8 September 1329.



Other Catholic Documents


Canon Four of the Council of Tours (1163)

Canon Three of the Fourth Lateran Council (1215)

Summa contra hereticos (a 13 century treatis against the Cathars) published by Jean Duvernoy - MS Doat XXXVI and BM Toulouse 379). French Introduction + Latin Text .

Cathars and the Poormen of Lyon by Raynier Sacconni (a Dominican) dated 1250 - a French translation published by Jean Duvernoy.

An Extract from the Chronicle of Ralph, abbot of Coggeshall concerning the discovery of a Cathar in Rheims

Bernard Gui, Extract from the Inquisitors' Manual [1307-1323], Practica inquisitionis heretice pravitatis on the Waldensians

Bernard Gui, Extract from the Inquisitors' Manual [1307-1323], Practica inquisitionis heretice pravitatis on the Beguines

Bernard Gui, Extract from the Inquisitors' Manual [1307-1323], Practica inquisitionis heretice pravitatis on the Albigensians (Cathars)

Caesarius of Heisterbach: Medieval Heresies from Dialogue on Miracles, V , Discussion of Waldensians, Albigenses, and "intellectual heretics" at Paris.

Angelo Clareno, a Spiritual Franciscan: On Torture , early 14th Cent.



Lyon Ritual
Cathar Tours







Books on Catharism and the Cathars



Books on Catharism


Reviews of books on Cathars & Catharism

General Reading on Cathars & Catharism

Intermediate Reading on Cathars & Catharism

Academic Reading on Cathars & Catharism

Source Documents (in translation) on Cathars & Catharism

Historical Revisionism - on Cathars & Catharism

Books in French on Cathars & Catharism

Novels and Other Books on Cathars & Catharism



Books on the Cathar Crusades


 in French. L'Épopée Cathare, Book by Michel Roquebert: 5 volumes. (Privat; v1 1970, v2 1977, v3 1986, v4 1989, v5 1998.  The definitive work on the history of the Cathar war.  5 stars


Cistercians, Heresy and Crusade in Occitania, 1145-1229: Preaching in the Lord's Vineyard;     by Beverly Mayne Kienzle ;     Hardcover: 280 pages ; Dimensions (in inches): 0.91 x 9.50 x 6.42;     Publisher: York Medieval Pr; (May 2001) ;     ISBN: 190315300X


The Albigensian Crusade by Jonathan Sumption ;     Paperback: 272 pages ; Dimensions (in inches): 0.84 x 8.49 x 5.32 Publisher: Faber & Faber; (June 2000);     ISBN: 0571200028 ;     Hardcover;     Publisher: Faber & Faber; (April 1978;     ASIN: 0571110649  5 stars


The Albigensian Crusades (Ann Arbor Paperback Series);     by Joesph R. Strayer, Joseph Strayer, Carol Lansing (Designer);     Paperback: 283 pages ; Dimensions (in inches): 0.75 x 8.18 x 5.46 Publisher: University of Michigan Press; (July 1992);     ISBN: 0472064762


Massacre at Montsegur: A History of the Albigensian Crusade by Zoe Oldenbourg ;     Paperback: 432 pages ; Dimensions (in inches): 1.33 x 8.46 x 5.44;     Publisher: Phoenix Press, London WC2; (June 2001);     ISBN: 1842124285;     ( in French. Buché à Montsegùr)  5 stars


The Chronicle of William of Puylaurens: The Albigensian Crusade and Its Aftermath;     by W. A. Sibly (Translator), M. D. Sibly (Translator), G. F. Pegg;     Hardcover: 198 pages ; Dimensions (in inches): 0.87 x 9.46 x 6.34 ;     Publisher: Boydell & Brewer; (July 2003);     ISBN: 0851159257


The Cathars and the Albigensian Crusade,  Book by Michael Costen, Manchester University Press, 1997.  Very good introduction to the subject.  4 stars





Books on the Papal Inquisition


 in French. Emmanuel Le Roy Ladurie, Montaillou, village occitan de 1294 à 1324, Editions Gallimard (Paris, 1978),   in English.  Montaillou, abridged English version, Penguin (London, 1978), Book by   A good account of a coda to the main story of the Cathars, based on Inquisition records of the arrest of a whole village on suspicion of Catharism.  5 stars


Rene Weis, The Yellow Cross: The Story of the Last Cathars 1290-1329 by s (Hardcover)  4 stars


Mark Mettler, Heretics: An Evaluation of Cathar Faith and Practice: An Interpretation of the Inquisition Record of Bishop of Pamiers, Jacques Fournier, Le Registre d'inquisition de Jacques Fournier (Paris: Mouton, 1978) as Translated from Latin into French by Jean Duvernoy.  4 stars


John H. Arnold, Inquisition and Power: Catharism and the Confessing Subject in Medieval Languedoc (Middle Ages Series);          Hardcover: 328 pages ; Dimensions (in inches): 1.15 x 9.60 x 6.62;     Publisher: University of Pennsylvania Press; (August 2001);     ISBN: 0812236181


Raymond A. Mentzer, Heresy Proceedings in Languedoc, 1500-1560, Part A (Transactions of the American Philosophical Society, Vol 74);         Paperback ;     Publisher: Amer Philosophical Society; (August 1984);     ISBN: 0871697459


James B. Given,   Inquisition and Medieval Society: Power, Discipline, and Resistance in Languedoc;       Paperback: 255 pages ; Dimensions (in inches): 0.66 x 8.96 x 6.06 ;     Publisher: Cornell Univ Pr; (December 2001);     ISBN: 0801487595;   


Click on the following link for recommended Books on Dualism and other HeresiesNext.



Books on Languedoc History


Knights of the Cloister: Templars and Hospitallers in Central-Southern Occitania 1100-1300 by Dominic Selwood ;     Paperback: 288 pages ; Dimensions (in inches): 0.76 x 9.19 x 6.11 ;     Publisher: Boydell & Brewer; (November 2002) ;     ISBN: 0851158285


Peasants of Languedoc;     by Emmanuel L. Ladurie, John Day (Translator);     Paperback: ; Dimensions (in inches): 0.80 x 9.02 x 6.05 Publisher: Univ of Illinois Pr (Pro Ref); (December 1977);     ISBN: 0252006356


Luminous Debris: Reflecting on Vestige in Provence and Languedoc;     by Gustaf Sobin;     Paperback: 304 pages ; Dimensions (in inches): 0.73 x 8.02 x 6.00;     Publisher: University of California Press; (November 1999);     ISBN: 0520222458


Absolutism and Society in Seventeenth-Century France : State Power and Provincial Aristocracy in Languedoc by William Beik (Author);     Paperback: 396 pages ; Dimensions (in inches): 0.87 x 8.85 x 5.93;     Publisher: Cambridge University Press; Reprint edition (June 1989);     ISBN: 0521367824


How They Kept the Faith: A Tale of the Huguenots of Languedoc (Huguenot Inheritance Series, #3);     by Grace Raymond ;     Paperback: ; Dimensions (in inches): 1.00 x 7.75 x 5.25 Publisher: Inheritance Publications; (June 1996);     ISBN: 0921100647


Cultivating Dissent: Work, Identity, and Praxis in Rural Languedoc (Suny Series in National Identities);     by Winnie Lem ;     Paperback: 268 pages ; Dimensions (in inches): 0.62 x 8.88 x 5.88 Publisher: State Univ of New York Pr; (May 1999);     ISBN: 0791441881


Histoire du Languedoc;     by Emmanuel le roy Ladurie;     Paperback ;     Publisher: Presses Universitaires de France (PUF);     ISBN: 2130427308
















You can join small exclusive guided tours of Cathar Castles
led by an English speaking expert on the Cathars
who lives in the Languedoc
(author of and )

Selected Cathar Castles. Accommodation provided. Transport Provided.

Cathar Origins, History, Theology.
The Crusade, The Inquisition, and Consequences

Click here to visit the Cathar Country Website for more information





Academic Papers and Articles


The Virgin Mary in Cathar Thought, Sarah Hamilton, Senior Lecturer, University of Exeter
The Journal of Ecclesiastical History (2005), 56 : pp 24-49


Journal of Religious History, Special Issue: Cathar Heresy
Volume 35, Issue 4, pages 469–477, December 2011


Inquisitors and Heretics in Thirteenth-Century Languedoc: Edition and Translation of Toulouse Inquisition Depositions, 1273-1282.Ed. Dr Pete Biller (Professor of History) York University, Caterina Bruschi and Shelagh Sneddon. (Brill: Leiden, 2011).


'Cathars and the Material World', by Dr Pete Biller (Professor of History) York University in God's Bounty? The Churches and the Natural World, Studies in Church History 46 (Boydell and Brewer: Woodbridge, 2010), pp. 89-110.


'Deep is the Heart of Man, and Inscrutable: Signs of Heresy in Medieval Languedoc', by Dr Pete Biller (Professor of History) York University in Text and Controversy from Wyclif to Bale: Essays in Honour of Anne Hudson, ed. H. Barr and A.M. Hutchison, Medieval Church Studies 4 (Brepols: Turnhout, 2005), pp. 267-80.


'Cathar Peacemaking', by Dr Pete Biller (Professor of History) York University in Christianity and Community in the West: Essays for John Bossy, ed. S. Ditchfield, St Andrews Studies in Reformation History (Ashgate Press: Aldershot, 2001), pp. 1-23.


'William of Newburgh and the Cathar Mission to England', by Dr Pete Biller (Professor of History) York University in Life and Thought in the Northern Church c.1100-c.1700: Essays in Honour of Claire Cross, ed. D. Wood, Studies in Church History, Subsidia, 12 (Ecclesiastical History Society, The Boydell Press: Woodbridge, 1999), pp. 11-30.


'Women and Texts in Languedocian Catharism', by Dr Pete Biller (Professor of History) York University in Women, the Book and the Godly, ed. L. Smith and J.H.M. Taylor (D.S. Brewer: Cambridge, 1995), pp. 171-82.


'Cathars and their supporters in the northern Languedoc', Claire Taylor, Associate Professor, Faculty of Arts, Nottingham University, presented at the 36th International Congress on Medieval Studies, Western Michigan University, Kalamazoo, Michigan, May 2001.


'Innocent III, King John and the Albigensian Crusade (1209-1216)', Claire Taylor Associate Professor, Faculty of Arts, Nottingham University, presented at 'Pope Innocent III and his World', Hofstra University, New York, May 1997.


Review: L'histoire du Catharisme en discussion: Le 'Concile' de Saint-Félix (1167). Oxford Journals, English Historical Review, Volume120, Issue486, pp. 500-502..


Papas Nicetas: A Byzantine Dualist in the Land of the Cathars, by D Obolensky, 1983


David Cherrett, Cathar Ecclesiology: An Example of a Heresy's Institutionalisation, 1991 (previously unpublished.). A interesting view of the Cathar Church hierarchy, touching on the veracity of the Acts of the Council of Saint-Félix (currently a hot topic in Cathar studies because it is cetral to the revisionist case). Any comments to



Catching Fire from Dominic's Vision. The Coming of the Preachers, Barbara Beaumont OP

Paper presented at a meeting of the International Commissionhs of the Dominican Order, Prouilhe, France, April, 2006 celebrating the coming 800th anniversary of the foundations of the Order, largely about the founding of Prouilhe.



Anotated English translation by James McDonald of Voltaire's account of the Crusade against the Cathars of the Languedoc



University and other Academic Courses on Heresy & the Cathars



For short, on-site academically sound courses in the Languedoc see the Cathar Country Website



  • Cambridge University: Crusade, Heresy and Inquisition, Jonathan Phillips (Professor of Crusading History, Royal Holloway, University of London)
  • Cardiff University: HS1710 - Heresy and Dissent, 1000-1450, Helen Nicholson (Reader in History)
  • York University: Popular Heresy in the High Middle Ages, Dr Pete Biller (Professor of History)
  • Reading University: Dr Rebecca Rist (Lecturer in Medieval History)
  • University of Glasgow: Dr Andrew P Roach (Senior Lecturer in History)



  • Washington University: Professor Mark Gregory Pegg, Department of History
  • Boise State University: E. L. Skip Knox



  • University of Sidney: Heresy and Witchcraft




University and other Academic Websites



In English


York University, UK     5 stars


York University in the UK has a project called The Genesis of the Inquisition: Procedures and Truth-claims of Inquisition records, The Inquisition Registers of the Languedoc 1235-1244. The project is producing an edition and English translation of inquisition records (parts of Doat 21 and all of Doat 22-24).

Click to open the website at

There is also a developing section giving biographies of the Languedoc Inquisitors at

And a useful bibliography at

See also English translations from the Medieval Sourcebook on this site


Nottingham University, UK     3 stars

Nottingham University has created research network called the a Medieval Heresy and Dissent Research Network. (which does not seem very active as of 2016).

For more visit their homepage.


San Jose State University, USA 5 stars

Inquisition Records of Jacques Fournier. Nancy Stork's English translation of the Inquisition Records of Jacques Fournier, Bishop of Pamiers, France, 1318-1325. (covering all sorts of supposed "heretics", not just Cathars).

For more visit this page.




In French

Website of the late Jean Duvernoy, including French translations of depositions before the Inquisitors of the Languedoc.  5 stars

Click to open the website at





Cathar Related Videos




Who Were the Cathars - 2021 - by Filip Holm - Part of his Let's Talk Religion Series - 2021 - 28 mins

Very good introduction (though with a couple of minor errors & some odd mispronunciations. (in English)



Gnostics Part II - The Goodman's Heresy - UK Channel 4 - 1980s - 52 mins

with top scholars Bob Moore, Michel Roquebert, Ann Brenon. Also some reconstruction (with Brian Blessed!). Picture quality not so good. (in English)



Cathar Crusade


The Cathar Crusades - David Raeston -- 5 mins 50

Good short summary (in English)



Montsegur - French Montségur - Occitan Montsegùr


Montségur - Reconstruction of Montsegur II & III- French - 3 mins

Excellent graphics - great help for understanding the castrum here in 1244 and the present ruins.



Montségur, Cathare ou non? - Claud Masol - 1996 - French - 22 mins 36

Confirming that Montsegur III post dates 1300



The Ruins of Montsegur - 11 mins 21

Nice pics. No narative, just annoying music








Popes on the Cathars




Pius XI



Other Catholic Sources

Hildegard of Bingen's visions concerning the Cathars and Pope Benedict XVI's comments on them in 2010

Anotated copy of the 1912 Catholic Encyclopedia entry on the Cathari

Anotated copy of the 1912 Catholic Encyclopedia entry on the Albigenses

Hilaire Belloc, The Albigensian Attack, Chapter Five of The Great Heresies




Encyclopaedia Britannica

Anotated copy of the 1912 Catholic Encyclopedia entry on the Cathari

Anotated copy of the 1912 Catholic Encyclopedia entry on the Albigenses






Time Magazine: "Religion: Massacre of the Pure", 28 April, 1961

New York Times; "The Besieged and the Beautiful in Languedoc, 6 May 2010",






Melvyn Bragg (Lord Bragg), In Our Time on Radio 4

Arques, Museum:  located in the house of René Neli, the man who revived interest in the Cathars early in twentieth century. Poor.

Montsegur, Museum:  located in the modern village of Montsegur and featuring many finds from excavations at Montsegur. Excellent.

Centre d'Études Cathares , Carcassonne - now defunct

Source Documernts - Primary Document Petrus Iohannes Olivi: Selections from the Apocalypse Commentary (1247/8-1298).

Extracts from various documents concerning the War against the Cathars: Minerve, (the tile of the site does not accurately describe its contents) Sources cited


Cathar related Music

  • L'Agonie du Languedoc: Claude Marti / Studio der frühen Musik - Thomas Binkley, dir. EMI "Reflexe" 1C 063-30 132 [LP-Stereo], 1975
  • La Nef. Montségur: La tragédie cathare. Dorian Recordings. DOR-90243
  • Savall The Forgotten Kingdom: The Cathar Tragedy - The Albigensian Crusade AVSA9873 A+C Alia Vox 2009




The Midi

The Midi France : Recommended website on southern France



Occitanie / The Languedoc

About-France : recomended web page on part of the Occitanie Region (previously the Languedoc-Roussillon)

About-France : recomended web page on part of the Occitanie Region (previously the Midi-Pyrénées)









Further Information on Cathars and Cathar Castles



If you want to cite this website in a book or academic paper, you will need the following information:

Author: James McDonald MA, MSc.
Title: Cathars and Cathar Beliefs in the Languedoc
Date last modified: 8 February 2017


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